Büyük Mecidiye Mosque or Ortaköy Mosque, known by the public, is a Neo Baroque style mosque located on the beach in the Ortaköy district of Beşiktaş district in Istanbul Boğaziçi.
The mosque was built by Architect Nigoğos Balyan in 1853 by Sultan Abdülmecid. The mosque, which is a very elegant building, is in Baroque style. It is located in a unique location on the Bosphorus. As in all mosques, it consists of two parts: harim and doner kebab. Wide and high windows are arranged to carry the variable lights of the Bosphorus into the mosque.
The building, which is reached by stairs, has two minarets with a single balcony. Its walls are made of white cut stone. The walls of the single dome are made of pink mosaic. The altar is made of mosaic and marble, and the pulpit is made of porphyry covered marble and is a product of fine craftsmanship.
The building, also known as Büyük Mecidiye Mosque, is located at the northern end of Ortaköy İskele Square. In the place where the mosque was previously, there was a mosque built in 1133 (1721) by Vizier İbrâhim Pasha's son-in-law Mahmud Ağa. This building was probably renovated in the 1740s by Kethüdâ Devâtdâr Mehmed Ağa, the son-in-law of Mahmud Ağa. In Hadîkatü'l-cevâmi, it is stated that the building constructed by Kethüdâ “was built in sâra-i deryâ dâda with a honorable minaret and mahfel-i hümâyun and all its legendary.” Today's building was built by Sultan Abdülmecid in 1270 (1854) according to the inscription written by Zîver Pasha on the entrance door.
The mosque whose architect is Nikogos Balyan, XIX. It consists of the harim section and the sultan pavilion in front of the entrance, as in the 12,25th century mosques. Except for the western entrance, the composition of both parts is symmetrical compared to the north-south axis. On the eastern and western facades, where two separate sections are located, the harim and sultanate sections are equal in measure. Harim has an edge of about XNUMX m. It is a square space in length and covered with a dome with a deaf pulley that is passed through the pendants. Other parts in the north are covered with vaults. The last congregation place is an entrance hall with a transverse rectangular plan inside, and it is passed under the gallery with three openings with a door in the middle and a window on the sides. The building has large and high windows. There are three large round arched windows in two rows on the other three sides of the harim outside the entrance hall. Of these, the lower middle window of the Qibla facade is deaf and a mihrab is placed here. Graded mihrab niche in marble is in the style of empire. Corner fillings are decorated with embossed intricate plant motifs and border embossed with geometric motifs. The marble pulpit is decorated with pink stones. It is decorated with geometric motifs on the balustrades and baroque folds on the sides. The elegant sermon desk on the left is made of marble and somaki. The interior walls of the mosque are decorated with red and white moire pink colored stone imitation plasters. The “çehâryâr-ı defaîn” signs hanging on the walls and the word-i tawhid on the pulpit were written by Sultan Abdülmecid and others by Ali Haydar Bey. Landscape and architectural arrangements attract attention in pendants and dome works.
The two-storey sultan pavilion, consisting of east and west wings, connected by the entrance hall and the hall above it, is reached by the stairs that are located on the northwest corner and curved on both sides. Its eastern and western wings stand out, forming a small courtyard at the entrance. The Hünkar entrance is on the west side of the entrance hall and is accessed by ten steps stairs on both sides and it is a part with three openings. The western wing of the second floor, which is climbed by a flashy, double-armed, elliptical staircase, is arranged as the sultan's apartment. The east and west wings, where there are three interchangeable spaces, are symmetrical except for a few minor differences. The ladder that provides the connection between the floors in the east wing is located in the south.
There is a difference between the harim and the sultan pavilion in terms of design and handling of surfaces. Despite the richness of the decoration in the harim, the façades were kept very plain in the pavilion. The decoration elements here are the triangular or circular pediments on the windows of the halls of the sultan's apartment with the moldings around the windows with low arches. The exterior of the mosque attracts attention with its baroque and rococo style stone, carved and relief ornaments. It is about 2 m from the dock where it sits. raised, the ground floor and the gallery floor are separated by moldings. The extension of these moldings also forms the fringe cornices of the sultan's pavilion. All three openings on the body walls are arranged concave. At the outer points of the openings, there are fake columns, four of which are embedded in the wall, four on each facade. All of the columns on the gallery floor and the upper halves on the ground floor are grooved. Columns end in the gallery floor with composite column heads and the two columns in the middle are also highlighted with additional trays and hillocks.
The bases of the minarets with thin bodies are on both sides of the staircase and inside the masses that make up the pavilion. Under the cheers are consoles formed by the reverse bends volutes. The acanthus leaves at the bottom are painted with gold gilding. The structure, which was quite delicate in terms of statics, was repaired in 1862 and 1866, and was repaired by the Evkaf Minister in 1894 when it suffered great damage in the 1909 earthquake. In this repair, the old grooved minarets that were demolished were built without grooves, the honeycomb and coarse parts of the minarets and various parts of the building were renewed. The floor was reinforced and the dome was renewed during the restoration works initiated by the General Directorate of Foundations due to the re-cracking of the building in the 1960s. The mosque, which was closed for worship in this repair, was reopened in 1969. The building, which was partially devastated by a major fire in 1984, was restored. Ortaköy Mosque is one of the important and valuable architectural works of the Bosphorus, although its original pieces have changed significantly over time.