147-year story of Baghdad Railway! Professor Edward Mead Earle wrote in his book ”1923 Ab that Abdulhamid II prevented foreigners from settling along the way.
According to Professor Earle, II. Abdulhamid insisted on the recognition and protection of certain rights. In order to prevent the wide privileges brought by the Ottoman Government to bring new capitulations for the benefit of the foreign states, the Ottoman Government put the concession clauses in the concession agreement. Anatolia and Baghdad Railway Companies are common Ottoman companies, stated in the agreement. Disputes between the government and the troupes, or the troupes and private individuals, would be seen in the competent Turkish courts. A concession agreement was added to the concession agreement. Accordingly, Kumpanya, foreign citizens of the state, along the Anatolian and Baghdad Railways would not be encouraged to settle.
In order to obtain the concession of the railway project to Baghdad, which has been resumed, the great states have struggled.
The story, which went on to the ”Baghdad Railway” project during the Ottoman Empire, first appeared with the Izmir-Aydin line, which was first built in 1856 with the privilege given to a British company and opened for operation in 1866. When the Orient Railways reached Istanbul in the summer of 1888, starting from the Austrian border and passing through Belgrade, Nis, Sofia and Edirne, in addition to the Izmir-Aydin line in Anatolia, the British owned the Adana-Mersin railway and rented the Haydarpasa-Izmit railway. Izmir-Kasaba (Turgutlu) line was under the control of the French. In fact, the first railway construction on the Ottoman territory began in Egypt in 1851, and in 1869 it was over 1.300 kilometers in length.
Sultan II. Abdülhamit the Oriental Railways was completed, the proposal of the General Directorate of the General Directorate of the Duyunun brought to the agenda to weave through the railway network. The director of Württembergische Vereinsbank in Stuttgart who wants to sell ”Mauzer” (Mavzer) rifles to the Ministry of War. Alfred von Kaull to make railway in Turkey for the purpose of Deutsche Bank's managing director Dr. He signed with Georg von Siemens. Thus, a partnership was established to handle the operation of Haydarpaşa-İzmit line and extend this line to Ankara. This partnership includes the privilege of taking the line to Ankara in October 1888; railway, Samsun, Sivas and Diyarbakir to Baghdad on the condition that it was extended.
Thus, the Anatolian Railway Company (La Societe du Chemin de Fer Ottomane d'Anatolie) was born and the first German railroad in the Ottoman Empire began. II. Abdulhamit, the company for the Ankara railway at least 15 thousand francs per kilometer per year guaranteed. This money would be provided by Düyunu Umumiye with taxes to be taken from the places on the route of the new line.
Despite various attempts by the British and French, II. Abdülhamit announced on 27 November 1899 that he had decided to grant the concession of the railway line from Konya to Baghdad and the Persian Gulf to Deutsche Bank. Meanwhile, the Ottoman Bank, which was in line with French interests, was recently taken over by the Deutsche Bank to the Baghdad Railway Company.
II. Abdulhamit also granted the concession to the Deutsche Bank group in Haydarpaşa. The Haydarpaşa Train Station was opened in 1902 a year before the granting of the concession to the Baghdad Railway.
On 18 March 1902, the decree that the Baghdad Railway concession was granted to the Anatolian Railway Company was issued. Kayzer II. Wilhelm, II. He thanked Abdulhamit with a telegram.
Baghdad Railway, which will be the starting point of Konya, would give way to the old trade road through the historical roads. After the Karaman and Eregli, the new line would cross the Taurus Mountains and reach the fertile Çukurova. The Baghdad Railway was to meet the Adana-Mersin railway in Adana, the commercial center of Çukurova. The Gavur Mountains would pass through tunnels and come to Aleppo. The railway would form connections from here to Hama, Homs, Tripoli, Damascus, Beirut, Jaffa and Jerusalem. The Baghdad Railway would reach Nusaybin and Mosul after heading east from Aleppo. The two branches that would leave Nusaybin would go to Diyarbakir and Harput. The Baghdad Railway, which would follow the Tigris River valley flowing from the south and southeast of Mosul, would reach Baghdad after Tikrit, Samarra and Sadiye.
According to the terms of the agreement, which was given by Professor Edward Mead Earle, Professor of History at Columbia University, in his 1923 275 eser work, the Ottoman government would partially participate in the financing of the Baghdad Railway. For each kilometer line to be laid, the government would issue Ottoman bonds with a nominal value of XNUMX thousand francs. In return for these bonds, the real estate of the railway and the enterprise would be mortgaged.
After Konya, on March 200, 5, the ump Ottoman Baghdad Railway 1903 with a 4 percent interest rate and 54 million francs was given to the company in order to finance the first XNUMX kilometers of the railway. The ownership of the territory belonging to the state where the railroad would pass would be transferred to the concession holders free of charge. The company would be able to occupy the land it would build without paying rent. Sand and stone quarries would also be used free of charge. The company would have the right to expropriate lands, such as private land, quarries, sandy areas where the line would pass. In addition, the authority to search for archaeological artifacts and excavations along the line was recognized.
II. Abdulhamid insisted on the recognition and protection of certain rights. The Ottoman government imposed concessions on the concession treaty in order to prevent wide-ranging privileges from bringing new capitulations to the benefit of foreign states. Anatolia and Baghdad Railway Companies are common Ottoman companies, stated in the agreement. Disputes between the government and the troupe, or the troupe and private individuals, would be seen in the competent Turkish courts.
A concession agreement was added to the concession agreement. Accordingly, Kumpanya, foreign citizens of the state, along the Anatolian and Baghdad Railways would not be encouraged to settle.
The Ottoman Government was also interested in the construction of the Baghdad Railway for military purposes. The rail could be used to suppress maneuvers or rebellions in peace, and to mobilize in war.
Professor Earle writes that the Baghdad Railway is öğ an element of the German-British competition at sea, a pawn of the great game between the Allies and the Entente States, a period of diplomatic struggle for influence etkin. "Baghdad every kilometer of the railway being laid against the empowerment of Turkey England, I was given a tough fight against the resistance of Russia and France. This resistance was led by Britain, who feared that the Baghdad Railway would threaten Egypt and India. ”
Professor Earle's work, the British Consul General in Istanbul, according to information, "the Anatolian railroad crossed areas of agricultural production had increased." Famine and famine disappeared; irrigation facilities had largely prevented drought and flooding. The Anatolian villagers had burned the industry.
Between 1906 and 1914, the Anatolian and Baghdad Railways paid their shareholders 5 to 6 percent earnings from time to time. In 1911, the Baghdad Railway was modernized and the locomotives started to burn oil from the American Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
Completed parts of the Baghdad Railway also made faces laugh. In 1906, 200 thousand 29 passengers and 629 thousand 13 tons of cargo were transported with the length of 693 kilometers; the gross income per kilometer was 1.368 francs, while the public guarantee payments were 624 francs. In 028, it reached 1914 kilometers. 887 thousand 597 passengers, 675 thousand 116 tons of cargo carried, per capita gross income of 194 francs, total security payments had been 8.177 million 2 thousand 939 francs.
In the First World War, the division of the Ottoman Empire, which stood beside Germany, came into being with the Sykes-Picot Treaty signed on 9 May 1916 between the Entente States. The agreement laid down the limits of British and French political and economic rights in the areas to be divided. Among the regions given the full sovereignty of France were the Çukurova cotton, the Ergani copper mines and the part of the Baghdad Railway between the Taurus Mountains and Mosul. England, on the other hand, would take control of southern Mesopotamia from Tikrit to the Persian Gulf and from the Arabian border to Iran.
After the declaration of the Republic, 4 thousand kilometers of the railways, which were built and operated by foreign states during the Ottoman period, remained within national borders. With the law enacted on 24 May 1924, these lines were nationalized. Concessions of companies were acquired over time.