Tirilye (Greek: Τρίγλια, Triglia, Brylleion) is in the town of Mudanya district of Bursa.
It is on the west of the district, 11 kilometers away, on the Marmara Sea coast. Some researchers claim that Tirilye is Tereia of Brylleion. The sister cities of Tirilye are Rafina and Nea Tirilya in Greece. The region where Tirilye is located was ruled by the Misyans, Thracians, Ancient Romans, Byzantines and Ottomans. The name of Tirilye, which came under Ottoman rule in 1330, was changed to the town of "Mahmutşevketpaşa" after the assassination of Grand Vizier Mahmut Şevket Pasha in 1909, but the settlement continued to be called Tirilye. The town, which was named as "Zeytinbagi" in 1963, was renamed "Tirilye" with a decision taken in 2012.
Tirilye was conquered by the Ottomans during the conquest of Mudanya and the foundation of Turkmen villages such as Mirzeoba and Kaymakoba (between 1321-1330). After its conquest, it remained a settlement where Greeks lived as a majority.
II. Tirilye, which was home to 30 households from Istanbul during the Bayezid period and referred to as the quay of Kitai in old records, was a rich settlement where Greeks lived mostly during the Ottoman period. Especially olive and olive oil were world-renowned. Silk-breeding and wine production and fishing were also among the important challenges.
In the 1906 Hudavendigar Province Yearbook, the town is introduced as follows:
“Tirilye subdistrict is on the west of Mudanya district and on the shore of Marmara Sea. It has a pleasant ambiance. The town has one Mosque-i sheriff, one Islamic and two Christian elementary schools, seven churches and three monasteries in the form of antiquities. There are some ancient artifacts in the inner part of the church called Kemerli. Its main production consists of olive, cocoon and in-house manufacturing industries. Olive products are sent to the shores of East Rumelia and the Black Sea and around Alexandria. ”
Upon the killing of Grand Vizier Mahmut Şevket Pasha in 1909, the town called “Mahmutşevketpaşa” for a while, was soon referred to as its former name.
During the period when Greece occupied Bursa and its surroundings between 1920 and 1922, Tirilye (September 1921) visited by King Constantine was liberated from the occupation on September 13, 1922 with the arrival of the Turkish army.
After the Turkish War of Independence, some of the Greek people of the town immigrated to Greece in accordance with the "Exchange Agreement" reached in Lausanne. Instead, Muslim-Turkish immigrants from Thessaloniki and Crete were settled in the town. In addition, some immigrants from Thessaloniki, Strumica, Alexandroupolis, Serres, Tikveş, Karacaovalı and Bulgaria were also settled in the region.
In 1963, the name "Tirilye" was removed and replaced with the name "Zeytinbağı". In 2012, the name Zeytinbağı was removed and the name of the town became “Tirilye” again.
At the end of the 19th century, the town had 19 oilhouses, 2 baths, 2 schools, 1 mosque and 7 churches. There were the following churches in Trilye; H. Athanasios, H. Basileios, Hristos Soteros, H. Demetrios, H. Georgios Keto, H. Georgios Kyparissiotes, H. Marina, H. Parapoline, H. Paraskeve, H. Spyridon churches and Madikkion and Pelekete Monasteries.
St. Vasil's Church
In 1676, the traveler Dr. In a manuscript prepared by John Covel, it is stated that the church is devoted to Panagia Pantobasilissa (Virgin Mary). It is assumed that it was built in the late 13th century considering the first structure, wall technique and other features. The first layer frescoes are dated to the beginning of the 14th century and the second layer frescos to the 18th century (1723). It was purchased by Elpidophoros Lambriniadis, appointed by the Istanbul Fener Greek Patriarchate to the Bursa Metropolitan. It will serve as a church after the restoration.
Dundar House, an old church building, became private property after the Greeks left the region. Today, 3 families sit in this old church, which is still rented as a residence. The main entrance is through an arched stone door. The entrance section has 3 floors. The windows on the ground floor are small and square. The windows on the second floor are larger and rectangular. On the third floor, the window tops are completed with an arch.
Taş Mektep is a building built in 1909. It is stated that the former President of Cyprus, Archbishop Makarios, received education in this school. It is a Neo-classical style building that reflects the Western architecture of its period.
In a stone carving on the building on the hill west of İskele street, “M. From MYPIDHS APXITEKTWN 1909 ”(M. Miridis Arhitektoğn 1909), the architect and the year of construction can be understood. (Akıncıtürk, 2000) Hrisostomos, who later became Izmir Metropolitan, was the principal of this school . This building was opened in 1924 by Kazım Karabekir Pasha as Dâr-ül Eytam (Öksüz Yurdu), which was read by martyrs, orphans and orphans.
The church, formerly known as Aya Todori, was written on the door with Hijri 968 and Gregorian 1560, and was later changed to Fâtih Câmii and opened for use. The building, which has Byzantine column heads at its entrance, has a 19-meter-high dome.
The mosque is entered from a closed portico with a wooden gable roof carried by columns decorated with motifs made of material. In the building constructed as a church, the existing altar is covered with a half dome. The conical dome sitting on the double-stage pulley is the dominant element.
Monastery; It is on the highway from Tirilye to Eşkel Harbor in Bursa province, Mudanya district. To the northwest is the Greek Cemetery. The building was dedicated to Hagios Sergios when it was first built. However, in the 11th century, its name was changed to “Medikion Monastery”.
The monastery, which was originally founded in the 8th century and used as a farm, has reached the present day with only the walls and the magnificent entrance doors, each weighing 200 kilos.
Hagios Ioannes Theologos (Pelekete) Aya Yani Monastery
The monastery, which was known to have been founded in 709 and operated until 1922, has survived to the present day with its ruined church and wall remains.
The church has a closed Greek cross plan. When the materials and technical properties used are examined, it is seen that the building was built in different periods. The eastern section has Byzantine level from the eastern corner rooms and the western section has the features of the 19th century.
Batheos Rhyakos Soteros Monastery (Aya Sotiri)
Some buildings of the monastery, which has been largely demolished, are used as shelter by the property owner.
The church has a rectangular naos in the east-west direction, a round apse inside and out from the north of the axis in the east, and a narthex in the west.
Ottoman bath (Hammam with Courtyard)
The courtyard bathhouse was built by Yavuz Sultan Selim. It is located next to the Fatih Mosque.
The bath has a rectangular plan in the east-west direction and consists of five separate places in a row. The entrance to the bath is on the east wall. The dressing room and the space following it are covered with mirror vaults. From here, it is passed to small sections and temperature. The temperature section was divided into two sections with a pointed arch in the east-west direction and covered with domes. The surroundings of the temperature are surrounded by niches in Bursa style, and a kurna is placed under them. In addition, a small rectangular pool was placed inside the bath.
It is being restored to be used as a Cultural Center.
The ancient port in the Kapanca region, which remained from the Roman period in Tirilye, has been the strategic focus of the most important coastal transportation in every period of time.
In historical sources, there is not much information about the situation of Tirilye and its surroundings from the 9th century to the beginning of the 14th century. However, by the Nimpheaum Agreement in 1261, Byzantine Emperor VIII. It is assumed that Tirilye was an important port city at that time since it was determined that Genoese used the ports of Tirilye and Apomeia (Mudanya) in the export of salt mines obtained from Lake Appolonia with the trade guarantee of the Genoese on the Marmara coast by Mikhail. It is also a port city, which transfers the products obtained from its fertile lands to the center of the Byzantine Empire and has a great functional importance in terms of its trade.
It is on the highway leading to Eşkel Harbor, a 15-minute walk from the center. It has survived to the present day with its Greek writings and large gate.
The fountains known as “Double Fountain”, “Çanaklı Fountain”, “Çarşı Fountain”, “Fatih Mosque Fountain”, “Sofalıçeşme” are the historic fountains that have come intact today.
Tirilye is one of the fountains belonging to the Byzantine period. It has a 70-ton cistern preserved to date. It is located on Eskipazar Street. Today it is being restored. The marble reliefs on it are interesting. These reliefs are found in old Byzantine buildings in Tirelia. It shows for what purpose the building is used. Water scale is used in Sofalı Çeşme.
Old turkish cemetery
The old Turkish cemetery has not survived to the present day. Although it remains as a street name, these places are no longer graves. It is not known where the tombstones of the Ottoman period were hidden. The name of these streets is still used as “Kabristan Sokak”.
80% of the population living in the town center is engaged in trade. Salt olive, oil, soap trade is the leading. Agriculture in Tirilye is highly developed. Olive production is the most common. Turkey is among the places where they grow the most delicious table olives. High quality apples, pears and peaches are also produced. Beans, artichokes, cucumbers, tomatoes, peas, eggplants, peppers are the leading vegetables grown.
Livestock breeding is less in villages close to the town and more in mountain villages. Poultry is also becoming widespread in the town. Fisheries are also an important source of income. Olive production takes a big place in the Tirilye industry. Tirilye is a town with a touristic identity in terms of tourism.
Tirilye olive is a world-renowned olive variety. Turkish buns and Turkish delight with walnuts are prepared in stone ovens during the holidays. Tirilye home baklava is a special baklava type prepared on holidays. Its feature is that its dough is thick. In addition, the inner material (especially walnuts) is placed in plenty of it. Tirilye kebab is among the known dishes. This kebab of Bursa in Turkey and is sold as a kebab Tirilye in many regions. Seafood is consumed abundantly. Mussel pan, fish frying and steaming are among the consumed foods. The people who came to Tirlye by immigration brought their own food cultures. The effects of Balkan and Black Sea cuisine can be seen in meals. It is sold in the living restaurants of Tatar cuisine. In Tirilye, kuluri (a kind of bagel) is made and sold in bakeries. Pavlova dessert with meringue and walnuts, almonds, and pistachios is made in houses.