UTIKAD, the Association of International Forwarding and Logistics Service Providers, has added a new one to its sector reports that it has been reviving since 2019 on the basis of sustainability. After publishing the "UTIKAD Logistics Sector Report 2020", it published the "UTIKAD Logistics Sector Report 2021" this year and presented it to the service of the sector.
UTIKAD reports are the output of the efforts made for our sector in terms of eliminating an important data and analysis deficiency in the sector. UTIKAD Logistics Sector Report 2021, which brings together the activities of the international logistics sector in Turkey, the capacity of freight transport, current developments and relevant legislation through measurable data; It bears the signature of UTIKAD Sectoral Relations Department.
Turkey to draw the basic framework of the logistics industry, sector stakeholders, be a source of reference for the sector to universities and media organizations, Turkey's share of all transport modes in foreign trade and attracting attention in the report to provide information for the development of the title are as follows:
THE CONTAINER CRISIS AND INCREASED FREIGHTS HAS INSTALLED 2021
The negative effects of the coronavirus pandemic, which left its mark on 2020, continued in 2021, and the effects of the new variants that emerged during the year were also felt in the global logistics industry. In order to reduce and ultimately destroy the effects of the virus on personal and social health, vaccine production against the virus was delivered to the citizens of all countries in the world, and a strong recovery process started after the break with COVID-19. With the Type K Recovery experienced in the world in 2021, sectoral-based growths were followed.
In 2021, the logistics industry tried to cope with different crises. Container and global supply chain crises have resulted in high cost increases. The container crisis has made containers both more expensive and inaccessible, directly raising the global supply chain challenge. With the easing of pandemic restrictions, the demand for transportation services increased, and there was an increase in freight rates as the orders piled up at the ports due to canceled cruises during the pandemic process.
The driver crisis, which had a worldwide impact, also affected our country closely. Due to the lack of drivers and the lack of personnel to be employed, logistics costs increased. The closure of the Suez Canal, along with the grounding of the Japanese container ship "Ever Given" on March 23, 2021, caused disruption in global trade. With the relaxation of pandemic measures
Together with the increase in energy demands, natural gas and coal prices broke records. Despite the crises, global trade showed a recovery trend in 2021 and approached the pre-COVID19 figures.
REGULATIONS CLOSELY RELATING TO THE LOGISTICS SECTOR HAVE BEEN ANNOUNCED
In 2021, international regulations that will affect the logistics industry have been announced. One of them was the “Fit for 55” announced by the European Commission in July. With this package, carbon regulation at the border, increasing the use of renewable energy, low-emission transportation modes and the infrastructure to support them came to the fore. Within the scope of the package, another legal regulation envisaging additional tax liability for exports to the European Union was the Border Carbon Regulation Mechanism (SKDM).
DIGITALIZATION EVOLUTIONS IN THE INDUSTRY
Along with the epidemic, new ways of doing business entered our lives and a digital evolution took place in the industry. In this process, e-commerce, automations and decreasing physical contact came to the fore. Ports have become autonomous, customs processes have been improved, infrastructure modernization has been achieved and customs declarations can be made digitally.
GIVING THE MOST SHARE FROM PUBLIC INVESTMENTS AND COMMUNICATION SECTOR
When the public investments made in the last 5 years in Turkey are examined, the Transport and Communications sector took the largest share in the total investment plan in 2021. According to 2020 data, the contribution of the Transport and Storage sector to GDP in Turkey was around 8%. In the International Service Trade Statistics, transportation activities took the largest share in both imports and exports.
In 2020, service exports amounted to approximately 25,5 billion USD, while service imports amounted to approximately 23 billion USD. As of March 2021, the total cash loan debt of the logistics sector amounted to 218 billion TL, the said debt was 156 billion TL in the same period of the previous year. In the 12-month period, the loan debt amount increased by 40,1%. The credit used by the sector was TL 196,793,813,000 in January; At the end of 2021, the loan amount increased by 35%.
MARINE TRANSPORTATION RANKS FIRST BASED ON VALUE AND WEIGHT
In terms of the value of the goods transported, maritime transport has the largest share in both imports and exports in the last 10 years. Road transport takes the second place in terms of value in Turkey's foreign trade transports. Among the transportation types, air transportation ranks third in terms of value in Turkey's foreign trade activities. Railway transportation is the type of transportation that has the lowest share in Turkey's foreign trade. Maritime transport is leading in terms of weight as well as value. The share of road transport in imports is around 2021% in 5,36. Rail transport has a share of less than 10% by weight in both Turkey's imports and exports in the last 1 years. Air transport is the transport type that has the lowest share in Turkey's foreign trade in terms of weight due to its limited capacity.
USA AND GERMANY IN THE TOP FIVE
When the distribution of Turkey's exports by country groups is analyzed, it is seen that EU-2020 countries rank first with 2021% at the end of both 27 and 41,3. The share of EU-27 countries in imports was 2020% at the end of 33,4 and 2021% at the end of 31,5. While imports from non-EU European countries constituted 2020% of all imports in 16,3, this rate became 2021 at the end of 16,5. In 2021, the share of the first 20 countries to which Turkey exports in total exports is approximately 66%, and the share of the first 20 countries from which Turkey is exported in total imports is approximately 67%. Germany and the USA are among the top 5 countries in both exports and imports. While the share of China, which is the first country in imports, is 11,88%, its share in exports is 1,63%.
PANDEMIC HIGHLIGHTS THE RAILWAYS
Rail freight transportation stands out as it is a more environmentally friendly, economical and safe mode of transportation compared to other transportation modes. The share of rail transport in Turkey's foreign trade in terms of value is lower than the share of all other modes of transport. It is seen that the share of the railway has increased compared to previous years in 2020, when the pandemic was effective. The increasing demand for rail freight transport is effective in this increase, as it enables contactless trade.
Road transport ranks second in Turkey's foreign trade in terms of value. The lowest rate of road transport in imports between the years 2011-2021 was in 17,88 with 2018%. Road transport had the lowest share in exports in 28, with a rate of 2018%. In 2021, the highest values were reached in international road transport on a value basis. In international freight transport, the freights exported by road had a larger share than the imported freights. Between 2011 and 2021, import shipments have the lowest share with a rate of 2016% in 3,72, while it has the lowest share with a rate of 2020% in exports in 16,79. While the share of import loads on weight basis was at most 5,36% in 2021, the share of export loads on weight basis was in 24,68 with a maximum rate of 2015%. The highest ton value was reached in both imports and exports in terms of weight in road freight transport in 2021.
AIRLINE TRENDS TO RECOVER IN 2021
During the period from 2011 to 2021 in the airline, international cargo traffic showed a greater and linear development compared to domestic cargo traffic. Domestic cargo traffic, which exceeded 2013 tons in 2014, 2015, 2021 and 100.000, had the lowest volume in the last 10 years, with 19 tons in 51.043 due to the impact of the COVID2020 pandemic. At the end of 2021, domestic cargo traffic was reflected in the statistics as 111.466 tons. Total cargo traffic of 2020 in 1.368.576 increased by 2021% to 21 tons in 1.615.709. At the end of 2021, when we felt the effect of the pandemic mildly, the international cargo traffic volume was 1.504.243 tons and the increase rate was 14%.