History of Chess, How to Play Chess, What are the Properties of the Pieces?

history of chess how to play chess what are the features of stones
history of chess how to play chess what are the features of stones

Chess is an important strategy game for both children and adults. Chess dating back to ancient times; It is a remarkable game with its rules, different tactics and openings.

History of Chess

There is solid evidence that chess originated in Egypt 4000 years ago. Apart from this, there are archaeological findings showing that it was played in Mesopotamia, China and Anatolia. However, the game of chess takes its present name from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The first written documents on chess were found in India. Played in India at that time, the game called "chaturanga" is considered the ancestor of chess. Chess spread from India to Iran, Arabia, Spain and Europe, thanks to the Andalusians. The first chess book, apart from the Arabic and European manuscript sources, was published in Spain in 1497.
Chess with the book published with the new rules of the game in Spain; It spread rapidly in Italy, France, USA and Russia. In the 19th century, chess masters such as Anderssen, Morphy, Rubinstein and Steinitz began to make their names heard. In 1886, the world chess championship match was held for the first time between the two strongest chess players of that time. As a result of the match between Steinitz and Zukertort, Wilhelm Steinitz became the first official world chess champion. According to the theory put forward by Steinitz, who is also the pioneer of the concept of systematic playing in chess, the starting point is to play in chess according to a plan that is suitable for the characteristics of the position. Studies on the features of the position have formed the foundations of modern chess.

Basic Rules of the Game

8 × 8 is played on a floor (board) consisting of a total of 64 squares. 32 white and 32 black squares are available. Both players have a total of 16 stones with different movement abilities. It is played by two players moving their pieces in turn. The object of the game is not to destroy all of the opponent's pieces, but to capture the opponent's King. This is called 'Mating'.
The presence of different pieces in the game of chess enriches the game and makes the game both more enjoyable and more difficult. Now let's briefly get to know the chess pieces

In the game of chess, there are stones with 6 different properties. These;

  • Pawn
  • At
  • Kale
  • File
  • Queen
  • Shah


Each player has 8 pawns. It is the least valuable stone. It can only move forward and destroy (eat) stones located across it. The pawn, which can move both squares at first, can then only move one square at a time.


Each player has two. It is a stone that moves in an 'L' shape with two forward and one side movements and does not move linearly. It has the ability to pass over other stones.


Each player has two. Moves diagonally in all directions


Each player has two. It has the ability to move vertically and horizontally.


Each player has one. It has the ability to move vertically, horizontally or diagonally in all directions. It is the strongest stone. It has the talent of both the castle and the elephant.


Each player has one king. The king can move only one square in any direction, vertically, horizontally or diagonally. The aim of the game is to capture the opponent's king by protecting our own king. Therefore it is the most important stone.

How to Play Chess?

Before starting the game, the chessboard is placed so that the bottom corner is white. The pieces are then placed on the first two horizontal sides of the chessboard in accordance with the chess rules. In the first horizontal, castles are placed at both corners, then horses and elephants are placed next to the castles, respectively. Then the queen and king are placed so that the queen is placed on the square of his own color (the black queen is in the black square and the white queen is in the white square). 8 pawns are placed on the second horizontal.

After the placement of the pieces is finished, the player with the white pieces starts to play. Players take turns playing. This is called 'making a move'. The game continues until one of the outcomes that require the opponent's king to be captured or the end of the game within the rules of chess is reached.

Although chess is very easy to learn, it is a game that allows the use of creativity, calculation and planning skills at the highest level due to the many possibilities it offers.

As a result of the first moves, the placement of stones on the board within a certain plan is called opening. The fact that there are 500 different openings in the chess game and many different sequences each show how deep the game is.

Some of the classic openings are as follows;

  • Queen's gambit opening,
  • Sicilian defense,
  • French defense,
  • Ruy Lopez inauguration,
  • Slav defense.

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