Pediatric Health and Diseases Specialist / Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist Dr. Serkan Aıcı explained what families need to know about infant development.
The Covid-19 pandemic, whose first year we left behind in recent months, has affected almost every aspect of life all over the world. Routine doctor check-ups, especially in infants and young children, are also important and were sometimes delayed. Early detection of developmental problems, taking necessary precautions, and in some cases without delay, prevent the health problems that the child may encounter in his later life. In this respect, for the health of children both in infancy and in other stages of life, parents should know some information and regularly follow up their babies in cooperation with physicians.
Is my baby short? Is her weight normal? My baby looks weaker than the babies of the same age that I see around me, I wonder if he has developmental delay? We have prepared answers to similar questions that parents are curious about and some important points that should be known in baby development for families.
Every baby is unique and should be evaluated on his own
Exp. Dr. Serkan Atici said, “The primary point to know is that every baby is unique and different from other babies. Factors affecting growth and development such as genetic structure, gender, birth weight and height, birth weeks, parent height, nutritional characteristics, sleep patterns, illnesses, exercises and some environmental factors are different for each baby. In other words, growth and development is multifactorial and development parameters such as height and weight may be different, although the calendar age is the same according to these changes in children. In this respect, it is not correct to compare infants or children with infants and children of similar months or ages. The correct thing is to evaluate according to scientific parameters and recommendations. ''
The development of babies begins in the womb. A baby born on the day of birth is about 3200-3300 g. In the days after birth, a certain amount of weight loss may occur due to the removal of fluid from the body. After about 10 days, he regains the weight he lost. kazanir. In the first three months, it takes 150-250 grams per week, and between 3-6 months it takes 100-120 grams. In the first months, it is normal to take an average of 20-30 grams per day. Between 9-12 months, it starts to take about 10-12 grams per day. At the age of one year, the average birth weight of the baby is expected to increase 3 times, and by the age of 2, it is expected to increase approximately 4 times. In the 1-3 year old age group, it is normal for the weight to increase by 250 grams per month. In this case, they can gain 2-2,5 kilograms per year.
A newborn baby is about 50 centimeters in length. An elongation of 8 cm is expected in the first three months, and another 8 cm in the second three months. There is about 4 cm in the next trimester and 4 cm more in the next trimester. By the age of one, it should reach 1.5 cm height, approximately 75 times the birth height. Height between 1-2 years of age is 10-12 cm in total, and from 2 to 3 years of age, it grows up to approximately 7 cm per year.
The table below includes height-weight limits and average values of boys and girls by both gender and month or age. In the clinic, pediatricians also use the development curves called percentile table and inform families in more detail.
The growth process of the baby carries important information about his healthy development. With regular follow-up, abnormalities are detected and necessary examinations and treatments should be performed.
My baby weight is low (below the lower limit)
One of the most important factors for weight is diet. In the first 6 months, babies should be fed with breast milk. During this period, formula feeding can be provided in babies who cannot receive breast milk for various reasons. In the sixth month, additional foods should be started, if possible, breastfeeding should be done until the age of 2.
Problems related to breastfeeding should be reviewed, especially in babies younger than 6 months. In addition, the presence of concomitant diseases, especially urinary tract infection, should be evaluated. Digestive parameters such as diarrhea or the presence of blood in poop should be reviewed.
Older babies may suffer from anorexia and may be picky about meals. It is necessary to make eating fun with the baby without getting stubborn. Fun plates can be prepared to make food fun. Trying to have food with a tablet or phone is one of the biggest mistakes. It is necessary to give nutritious foods rich in calories and nutritional content to babies with no appetite. Syrups containing vitamins and minerals should not be started without a doctor's recommendation.
Baby is overweight (above the upper limit)
Scientific studies have shown that some diseases such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, heart diseases and various cancer types in adults are related to wrong eating habits in childhood. One of the biggest responsibilities of parents is to teach healthy eating habits to their children. kazanis to climb. Family members should be good guides for the child, as children take family members as an example in this regard, as in many other subjects. As a family, it is necessary to stay away from salty meals, excessive sugar consumption, and fast food-style diets. It is necessary to pay attention to the consumption of the recommended foods according to the month of the baby. If your baby's weight is above the upper limit according to the month in the charts, observe and try to figure out where the problem is. The amount of formula, the frequency of feeding and the reconstitution process should be reviewed in infants receiving formula. Wrong food consumption, excessive food consumption etc. in older children. reasons should be considered. If you cannot find any, it would be appropriate to seek expert support. Some tests may be required. There may be changes in the approaches depending on the reason to be found.