Today in History: Before the Great Offensive, Fevzi Pasha and his Headquarters Secretly Go to the Front

Before the Great Offensive, Fevzi Pasa and his Headquarters Secretly went to the Front
Before the Great Offensive, Fevzi Pasha and his Headquarters Secretly Go to the Front

August 13 is the 225th (226th in leap years) day of the year according to the Gregorian calendar. The number of days left until the end of the year is 140.

Railways

  • 13 August 1993 TCDD Museum and Art Gallery was opened in İzmir.

Events

  • 1792 - King of France XVI. Louis was arrested by the "National Court" and declared a public enemy.
  • 1889 - German Ferdinand von Zeppelin patented his own invention, the steerable balloon, which he would call the Zeppelin.
  • 1905 – In the referendum held in Norway, the decision to leave Sweden was made.
  • 1913 - Acrobat Otto Witte claims to be King of Albania.
  • 1913 - Harry Brearley invented stainless steel.
  • 1918 – First female soldier (Opha May Johnson) enlisted in the US Navy.
  • 1918 – BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke AG) Engine Factory was established in Germany.
  • 1922 – Before the Great Offensive, Fevzi Pasha and his Headquarters secretly went to the front. On August 14, the movement of troops to the south and towards the front began quietly.
  • 1923 - Mustafa Kemal was re-elected President of the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
  • 1940 – II. World War II: German warplanes (Luftwaffe) begin bombing British airfields and radar bases.
  • 1954 – The National Anthem of Pakistan was broadcast for the first time on Pakistani Radio.
  • 1956 – Religious lessons were introduced in secondary schools in Turkey.
  • 1960 - The Central African Republic declared its independence from France.
  • 1961 - East German government closes the Berlin border with barbed wire to prevent escapes to the west. On 20 August, a concrete wall, which would later be called the “Wall of Shame”, began to be built in place of these wires.
  • 1966 - In China, Mao proclaims the "Cultural Revolution".
  • 1973 - Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was elected Prime Minister of Pakistan.
  • 1987 - US President Ronald Reagan admits his responsibility for the Iran-Contra Scandal.
  • 1997 - South Park started broadcasting.
  • 1999 – The constitutional amendment paving the way for “International Arbitration” was accepted in Turkey.
  • 2004 – 156 Congolese Tutsi refugees were killed in the Gatumba refugee camp in Burundi.
  • 2004 – 2004 Summer Olympics started in Athens.
  • 2020 – Israel and UAE agree to normalize relations as third Israeli-Arab peace deal.

Births

  • 985 – Judge, Fatimid caliph (d. 1021)
  • 1655 – Johann Christoph Denner, German inventor and instrument maker (invented the clarinet) (d. 1707)
  • 1814 – Anders Jonas Ångström, Swedish physicist (d. 1874)
  • 1819 – George Gabriel Stokes, French physicist (d. 1903)
  • 1844 – Friedrich Miescher, Swiss biologist (d. 1895)
  • 1866 – Frances Hardcastle, American mathematician (d. 1941)
  • 1871 – Karl Liebknecht, German socialist and founder of Spartakusbund and Communist Party of Germany (d. 1919)
  • 1872 – Richard Willstätter, German chemist and Nobel Prize laureate in Chemistry (d. 1942)
  • 1890 – Ellen Osiier, Danish fencer (d. 1962)
  • 1899 – Alfred Hitchcock, English director (d. 1980)
  • 1903 – Fahri Korutürk, Turkish soldier and 6th President of the Republic of Turkey (d. 1987)
  • 1903 – Suat Hayri Ürgüplü, Turkish politician (d. 1981)
  • 1911 – William Bernbach, American advertiser
  • 1913 – Makarios, archbishop of the Cypriot Orthodox Church and first president of the independent Republic of Cyprus (d. 1977)
  • 1913 – Rita Johnson, American actress (d. 1965)
  • 1918 – Frederick Sanger, British biochemist and Nobel Prize laureate in Chemistry (d. 2013)
  • 1926 – Fidel Castro, Cuban Marxist-Leninist revolutionary and leader of the Cuban Revolution (d. 2016)
  • 1929 – Pat Harrington, Jr., American television actor and voice actor (d. 2016)
  • 1930 – Kerim Afşar, Turkish theater artist (d. 2003)
  • 1939 – Oğuz Oktay, Turkish actor (d. 2015)
  • 1940 – Dirk Sager, German journalist and author (d. 2014)
  • 1943 - Ertha Pascal-Trouillot, president of Haiti
  • 1946 – Janet Yellen, American economist
  • 1949 – Sencer Ayata, Turkish sociology professor and politician
  • 1949 – Bobby Clarke, Canadian ice hockey player and manager
  • 1949 – Erol Mutlu, Turkish filmmaker, director, academic and writer (d. 2005)
  • 1949 – Philippe Petit, French artist
  • 1950 Jane Carr, English actress and dubbing artist
  • 1952 – Herb Ritts, American fashion photographer (d. 2002)
  • 1953 – Thomas Pogge, professor of political and moral philosophy
  • 1955 – Ahu Tugba, Turkish film actress
  • 1955 – Paul Greengrass, English film director and screenwriter
  • 1955 – Yuksel Yalova, Turkish lawyer, sports administrator, academic and politician
  • 1958 - Kathleen Cassello, American opera singer
  • 1959 – Ömer Dönmez, Turkish actor (d. 2020)
  • 1963 – Sridevi, Indian actor (d. 2018)
  • 1965 – Bahtiyar Engin, Turkish theater and film actor
  • 1967 – Jeanine Áñez Chávez, Bolivian politician and lawyer, former president of Bolivia
  • 1969 – Midori Ito, Japanese figure skater
  • 1970 - Alan Shearer, English national football player
  • 1972 – Hakan Altun, Turkish singer
  • 1974 – Joe Perry, English snooker player
  • 1974 – Niklas Sundin, Swedish musician
  • 1976 – Niran Unsal, Turkish singer
  • 1976 – Özge Özberk, Turkish actress
  • 1980 – Irina Berezhna, Ukrainian politician (d. 2017)
  • 1982 - Sarah Huckabee Sanders, Press Advisor to the American Government and Sözcüfemale politician serving
  • 1982 – Sebastian Stan, Romanian-American actor
  • 1984 – Alyona Bondarenko, Ukrainian tennis player
  • 1984 – Niko Kranjčar, Croatian former football player
  • 1984 – James Morrison, English singer-songwriter
  • 1985 – Elçin Sangu, Turkish actress
  • 1989 – Israel Jiménez, Mexican football player
  • 1990 – DeMarcus Cousins, American basketball player
  • 1990 – Benjamin Stambouli, French football player
  • 1992 – Lucas Moura, Brazilian football player
  • 1993 – Yoon Bomi, Korean singer, actress and broadcaster
  • 1994 – Cita Citata, Indonesian singer and actress
  • 1994 – Junki Hata, Japanese football player
  • 1994 – Jonathan Restrepo, Colombian football player
  • 2000 – Na Jae-min, South Korean rapper and actress

Deaths

  • 604 – Wen, founder and first emperor of China's Sui Dynasty (b. 541)
  • 612 – Fabia Eudokia, first wife of Heraclius from 610 until his death in 612 (b. 580)
  • 662 – Confessor (Defense of Faith) Maximus, Christian monk, theologian, and scholar (b. 580)
  • 908 - Muktafi, seventeenth of the Abbasid caliphs
  • 1134 – Irene, daughter of King Ladislaus I of Hungary and Adelaide of Swabian (b. 1088)
  • 1173 – IV. Nerses (Lütufkar Nerses) was the Armenian Catholicos between 1166 – 1173 (b. 1102)
  • 1608 – Giambologna, Italian sculptor of Flanders (b. 1529)
  • 1621 – Jan Berchmans was a Flemish Jesuit Saint (b. 1599)
  • 1788 – Esma Sultan, III. Ahmed's daughter (b. 1726)
  • 1823 – André-Jacques Garnerin, French aviator and inventor of the rimless parachute (b. 1769)
  • 1826 – René Laënnec, French physician and inventor of the stethoscope (b. 1781)
  • 1863 – Eugène Delacroix, French painter (b. 1798)
  • 1865 – Ignaz Semmelweis, Hungarian scientist and physician (b. 1818)
  • 1882 – Ekaterine Dadiani, last princess of the Principality of Megrelia (b. 1816)
  • 1882 – William Stanley Jevons, English economist and logician (b. 1835)
  • 1910 – Florence Nightingale, English nurse (b. 1820)
  • 1912 – Jules Massenet, French composer (b. 1842)
  • 1913 – August Bebel, German social democratic politician and journalist (co-founder of the German Social Democratic Party) (b. 1840)
  • 1917 – Eduard Buchner, German chemist and Nobel Prize laureate in Chemistry (b. 1860)
  • 1946 – Herbert George Wells, English journalist, author, and historian (b. 1866)
  • 1950 – Kınar Hanım, Armenian-born theater artist and canto player (b. 1876)
  • 1957 – Carl Størmer, Norwegian mathematician and astrophysicist (b. 1874)
  • 1960 – Hans Lange, American conductor (b. 1884)
  • 1965 – Ikeda Hayato, Japanese politician and Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1899)
  • 1974 – Nihat Sami Banarlı, Turkish literary historian (b. 1907)
  • 1984 – Tigran Petrosyan, Armenian chess master (b. 1929)
  • 1991 – James Roosevelt, eldest son of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Eleanor Roosevelt (b. 1907)
  • 1993 – Tekin Arıburun, Turkish soldier and politician (former President of the Senate of the Republic) (b. 1903)
  • 1996 – António de Spínola, Portuguese general and statesman (b. 1910)
  • 1997 – Carel Weight, English painter (b. 1908)
  • 2003 – Kazım Kartal, Turkish film actor (b. 1936)
  • 2004 – Julia Child, American chef (b. 1912)
  • 2006 – Tony Jay, English radio, film, television, stage actor and voice actor (b. 1933)
  • 2009 – Les Paul, American musician (b. 1915)
  • 2010 – Lance Cade, American professional wrestler (b. 1981)
  • 2011 – Ellen Winter, Danish singer (b. 1933)
  • 2013 – Lothar Bisky, German politician (b. 1941)
  • 2014 – Süleyman Seba, Turkish football player and Honorary President of Beşiktaş JK (b. 1926)
  • 2014 – Kurt Tschenscher, German retired football referee (b. 1928)
  • 2016 – Kenny Baker, British midget actor and musician (b. 1934)
  • 2017 – Joseph Bologna, American actor, comedian, voice actor, and television writer (b. 1934)
  • 2017 – Kuzey Vargın, Turkish film actor (b. 1940)
  • 2018 – Unshō Ishizuka, Japanese voice actor (b. 1951)
  • 2018 – Jim Neidhart, American professional wrestler (b. 1955)
  • 2019 – Kip Addotta, American stand-up comedian, host singer, songwriter, and actor (b. 1944)
  • 2019 – Lily Leung, Hong Kong actress (b. 1929)
  • 2019 – Nadia Toffa, Italian television host, journalist and author (b. 1979)
  • 2020 – Meral Niron, Turkish theater, cinema and TV series actress (b. 1937)
  • 2020 – Frank Brew, Australian football player (b. 1927)
  • 2020 – Michel Dumont, Canadian actor and artistic director (b. 1941)
  • 2020 – Gulnazar Keldi, Tajik poet and publisher (b. 1945)
  • 2020 – Darío Vivas, Venezuelan politician (b. 1950)
  • 2021 – Nanci Griffith, American country folk singer, songwriter, and guitarist (b. 1953)
  • 2021 – James Hormel, American politician, philanthropist, and LGBT rights activist (b. 1933)
  • 2021 – Henryk Hoser, Polish Roman Catholic bishop (b. 1942)
  • 2021 – Carolyn S. Shoemaker, American astronomer (b. 1929)

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