Air transport is key to supporting the current global trading system. Considering the speed and safe transportation factors it provides, the role of air transportation is also very important for the trade of important cargoes such as dangerous goods. In addition to advantages such as air transport, speed and planned operation, it offers the most advanced service with developing technology. According to the data announced by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the world airline industry has a direct and indirect economic contribution of 2,7 trillion dollars to the national economies.
EDUCATION, KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS ARE IMPORTANT
Within the scope of the Airline Working Group activities, which I follow as part of my duty in the Executive Board of the Association of International Forwarding and Logistics Service Providers (UTIKAD), I can say that having the necessary training, knowledge and awareness, especially in air cargo transportation, is the most important responsibility. The most important point that our sector representatives and trainers emphasize, both in the working group meetings and in our FIATA diploma training, is the lack of training.
Industry expertise kazanto renew information, to adapt to changing ways of doing business, to acquire theoretical and practical processes, to have different perspectives and experience kazanbe able to; elements that make vocational training compulsory. However, the time that is not allocated to education in the busy work tempo unfortunately brings with it important mistakes. Due to the lack of training and information, both time and cost losses and irreversible accidents can be experienced in dangerous goods shipments, where safety should be kept in the forefront in air transport.
Within the scope of the “Regulation on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Air”, “Dangerous Goods” according to the definition in paragraph bb of article 4; The list of dangerous goods published by the International Civil Aviation Organization is shown in the "Technical Instructions" section. It covers the goods, goods or substances that may pose a risk to the safety of life and property and the environment, classified according to the relevant instructions.
THE CLEAREST MODE OF ALL MODES
Important rules regarding the safe transportation of dangerous goods by air by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) are conveyed to the sector representatives. In addition, special trainings are organized by ICAO, IATA, IATA accredited airlines and authorized training institutions.
With our national legislation supporting international legislation, the rules are clearly defined. The provisions of the "Technical Instructions" and the "Regulation on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air" published by the International Civil Aviation Organization, as well as the international conventions to which it is a party, are applied in the transportation of dangerous goods by air. Perhaps it would not be wrong to set air transport as the clearest mode of all modes. But the successful implementation of these rules is highly dependent on education.
According to the data of the State Airports Authority (DHMI), the total cargo traffic, which was 2020 million 1 thousand 368 tons in 576, reached 2021 million 21 thousand 1 tons in 615 with an increase of 709 percent. According to IATA data, more than 1,25 million dangerous goods shipments are transported by air every year. The number of dangerous goods shipments is expected to increase significantly, with air cargo growth estimated at 4,9 percent per year over the next five years. At a point where the share of dangerous goods transportation by air is so high, it is obvious that the rules must be followed exactly.
Hazardous materials training is required for everyone who prepares, presents, accepts and handles products during the transportation of dangerous goods. Appropriate training is of vital importance in order to prevent possible dangers that may occur during the preparation and post-preparation transportation process and to ensure the competence of all relevant parties in order to ensure the transport of dangerous goods under appropriate conditions. How would you like to examine the importance of education through the accidents experienced during the transportation of dangerous goods?
TAKING EXAMPLES OF EXPERIENCE
Do you remember that a cargo plane crash in Dubai on September 3, 2010 was caused by 81 thousand lithium batteries that were carried in a container and whose existence was concealed? Or, the cargo plane crash that took off from Korea's Incheon Airport to China's Shanghai Pudong Airport on July 28, 2011 resulted in flammable materials such as paint, photoresist (Class 3), abrasive liquid (Class 8) and lithium-ion batteries used in hybrid cars. Did you know that it is due to being placed on the same pallet with combustible materials such as (Class 9)?
Considering the incidents whose examples are shared and when we think that the trainings organized by ICAO and IATA include steps such as applicability, classifications, limitations, instructions, documentation, transportation processes, packaging; It will be an important and safe step for the companies in the sector to send themselves, and then their colleagues who have just entered the sector, to these trainings in order to minimize the risks. Here, our companies say, “We already have a hazardous material responsible within our organization.” may say; it is true. However, the important thing is not to have at least two employees who have received the appropriate training specified within the scope of the "Regulation on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Air" in the company, but to raise the awareness of the employees involved in every step of the dangerous goods shipment from the reservation stage to the loading stage, and by noticing the possible negativities beforehand, to minimize the accidents and mistakes. even reduced to zero.
PROCEDURES AND PRINCIPLES FOR EDUCATION ARE DETERMINED
In accordance with the dangerous goods rules (DGR) of IATA, the responsibility for the transportation of dangerous goods by air belongs to the sender and all parties involved in the transport system. At this point, the main player is the cargo agencies. IATA provides industry representatives with the most up-to-date guidelines on how to safely transport and ship hazardous materials. However, disruptions such as incomplete processes and faulty packaging carried out by agencies before the transportation of dangerous goods; It causes companies to experience time and cost losses. These situations stem from a lack of education and knowledge.
While UTIKAD members, who handle approximately 95 percent of the import and export air cargo volume in Turkey, are informed by our announcements, warnings continue to be given by the General Directorate of Civil Aviation of the TR Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure. The General Directorate also published the "Training Instruction on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (SHT-EĞİTİM/DGR)" on April 18, 2022. With this instruction, the procedures and principles regarding the trainings to be given to the persons who will be involved in the transportation of dangerous goods by air, the content of the training programs, the training institutions and businesses that will perform the training, and the authorization and supervision of the trainers who will provide the said trainings were determined.
COMPETITION WILL INCREASE AS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT INCREASE
Although information is given in this article about airline transportation, the issues mentioned are closely related to all transportation modes. Carrying out dangerous goods transportation activities by road, rail, airway and seaway in Turkey in a safe, high-quality, sustainable competitive environment with the least harmful effects on the environment, in accordance with international conventions, standards and legislation, and that these activities serve in harmony with other transportation activities. important.
In order for Turkey to become an exemplary country and a transit transportation center, a high level of importance should be given to education in order to reduce the risks in the transportation of dangerous goods by air, to prevent the loss of time and cost, to prevent the processes carried out by unauthorized persons and to ensure these. Awareness, awareness and professional development to be created through education; It will increase the service quality of the sector, make the logistics sector qualified and carry our country to a stronger position in competition with the world countries.
UTIKAD Sectoral Relations Specialist Gamze Mutlu