Aphasia is the name given to damage to the speech part of the brain as a result of cerebrovascular disorders such as cerebral hemorrhage or stroke (stroke). This damage to the speech center of the brain causes problems such as speech disorder, inconsistency in perception and answers, and communication problems. An improvement of 45% can be seen in individuals with aphasia. With the necessary rehabilitation processes and a multidisciplinary approach, patients can regain their old quality of life. Early detection of signs and early initiation of treatment are vital in aphasia.
What is Aphasia? What is Aphasia?
Aphasia occurs when one or more parts of the speech area in the left lobe of the brain are damaged. Damage occurs in the brain lobes, which experience insufficient oxygen and glucose intake due to occlusion or convulsions in the vessels leading to the brain. There are different types of aphasia according to the point of appearance and spread of this damage that develops in the brain. The types of aphasia can be listed as follows:
- Broca's Aphasia: Although the understanding part of communication is not impaired in Broca's aphasia, the answering part is impaired. In other words, someone with Broca's aphasia understands but cannot answer correctly or produce the appropriate word.
- Global Aphasia: In global aphasia, also called total aphasia, not only the response area of the brain is damaged, but also skill areas such as speaking, understanding, repetition, interpretation, reading and writing.
- Wernicke's Aphasia: It is a type of aphasia, also known as fluent aphasia. In this type of aphasia associated with Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome, lesions originating in the visual and auditory areas of the brain cause problems in perception and speech. Therefore, the information that cannot be fully processed in the language and speech area cannot turn into words and speech disorder occurs.
- Conduction Aphasia: In this type of aphasia, the patient cannot repeat spoken words and sentences. Other language and speech areas are slightly or not impaired at all. A patient with conduction aphasia can understand instructions; can speak and read sentences written on a piece of paper.
- Anomic Aphasia: In this type of aphasia, patients can speak fluently and clearly. They do not have perception problems, but they cannot name objects or have difficulty remembering the words they want to use. For this reason, they have difficulties in written and verbal communication.
- Transcortical Aphasia: It is a type of aphasia that occurs as a result of the deterioration of the connection between the language area and the cognitive area. Its symptoms are similar to Wernicke's aphasia, but patients with transcortical aphasia retain the ability to relapse. The areas of reading aloud, writing and comprehension are damaged. In transcortical aphasia, individuals cannot understand what people are saying to themselves.
The question of what is aphasia or what is aphasia, which is often wondered, can be answered in this way.
How Is Aphasia Diagnosed?
After examining the answer to the question of what is aphasia in detail, the diagnosis and diagnosis part is made with a neurological examination. The patient is diagnosed with aphasia as a result of the patient's history, informing his relatives and applying the necessary tests.
What are the Signs and Symptoms of Aphasia?
Aphasia is seen in approximately 30% of patients who have had a stroke. Although communication and perception problems show a XNUMX% improvement with therapy, follow-up and diagnosis of early signs are very important. Aphasia signs and symptoms can be listed as follows:
- Having Problems in Naming Objects and Events: The patient cannot remember or say the name of an object that is in the field of view at that moment or when asked. Or he cannot find the right definition to express the situations that occur.
- Difficulty Speaking: As a result of damage to the language and speech centers, problems such as not being able to repeat, not being able to form fast and fluent sentences are experienced. The patient can only construct a sentence in a longer time than he normally would.
- Difficulty in Reading and Writing: It occurs in types of aphasia where the centers of the brain responsible for both speech and basic learning skills are damaged. Individuals with aphasia may not be able to read the writings on the paper given to them or write the sentences that are told to them.
- Inappropriate Word Choice While Speaking: Inconsistent and wrong word choices are also among the most important signs and symptoms of aphasia.
- Focus and Memory Problems: Since aphasia is a neurological disease, problems not only in speech but also in mental activities can be seen.
- Inability to Perform Two Actions at the Same Time: It is a condition in which activities that were easily combined before become impossible as a result of brain lesions and can be seen in aphasia patients.
What is the Treatment of Aphasia?
Aphasia is a health problem that is usually experienced after a stroke. For this reason, a detailed approach is required to all problems experienced in the patient's speech, physical activity, and skills such as chewing and swallowing.
Some types of aphasia may heal spontaneously and disappear over time. However, the necessary neurological and physical examinations and controls of these patients should be done regularly. There are different aphasia therapy approaches according to the lesion in the language and speech centers. The types of therapy with proven effectiveness are applied according to the type of aphasia the patient is experiencing. In the process of aphasia therapy, the participation and informing of the patient's relatives is as important as the participation of the patient. The language and speech exercises that the patient will perform may need to be applied not only in the therapy setting but also at home. Frequent and intense repetitions accelerate the process of faster and more permanent disappearance of speech disorder. It enables the individual to regain their communication ability and increase their quality of life again.
What Additional Problems Can Occur With Aphasia?
The incidence of aphasia alone is very low. With aphasia, different dysfunctions may develop in different parts and functions of the body. Some of the health problems that can be seen with aphasia include:
- Hemiplegia: It is a common problem with aphasia in stroke patients. In hemiplegia, which is defined as a partial stroke, patients cannot use all their muscles in a coordinated manner.
- Hemianopsia: It is the name given to the loss of vision that can occur in individuals who have had a stroke. These patients usually cannot see the side of the body affected by the stroke, but they preserve their vision of the healthy side.
- Apraxia: It is the name given to the patient's inability to perform the daily movements that he normally performs in his life. The patient may not be able to take off their clothes or have trouble eating or drinking. He performs his actions instinctively, not consciously.
- Epilepsy: Neuromuscular problems may occur in the individual as a result of damage to the brain. Sudden muscle contractions, seizures, and loss of consciousness may occur. Because of all these problems, patient history is important in neurological follow-up and controls.
What is Aphasia and How Long Does It Take to Treat?
Aphasia is a neurological disorder that occurs in speech and communication, and the duration of treatment may vary for each patient. The question of what is aphasia can be answered briefly in this way. Depending on the type of aphasia and the speech disorder that occurs in the individual, different treatment processes and treatment methods may develop. However, early intervention and intensive therapy can help overcome all these problems with minimal damage.
What is Aphasia and What Factors Affect the Recovery Process?
Aphasia is treated depending on many internal and external factors. Factors originating from the patient and family-based supporting the individual may accelerate or hinder the process.
- The patient's motivation and belief that he will recover,
- The age and general health of the patient,
- prevalence of brain damage
- The social and cultural status of the patient and his relatives can change the course of the therapy process. The interest and desire of the patient, his family and, if any, caregiver increases the treatment process and the rate of improvement.
Günceleme: 09/12/2022 11:09