Annelies Marie “Anne” Frank (born June 12, 1929 – died February/March 1945) was a German-Dutch diarist of Jewish origin. II. Her diary, in which she wrote about her life in the occupied Netherlands from 1942 to 1944 due to World War II, was later published as Anne Frank's Diary (original Dutch: Het Achterhuis). This is why Frank is one of the most well-known victims of the Holocaust. There are many books, plays and movies about her.
Born in Frankfurt, Germany, he lived with his family in Amsterdam, Netherlands, where he would spend most of his life, at the age of four and a half when the Nazis took control of Germany. Born a German citizen, he lost his citizenship in 1941. He was trapped in Amsterdam by the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940. In July 1942, as the persecution of Jews increased, he and his family hid in a secret room behind the library at home. From this time until the family's arrest by the Gestapo in August 1944, he regularly wrote about his experiences in his birthday present diary. When the family was arrested, they were sent to Nazi concentration camps. In October or November 1944, she and her older sister Margot were deported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. They died here a few months later, probably of typhus. The Red Cross had identified the deaths as March and the official date of death as March 31, but research at Anne Frank's House in 2015 showed that they were more likely to have died in February.
His father, Otto Frank, is the only member of the family to have survived the war. When she returned to Amsterdam, she learned that her daughter's diary was kept by her secretary Miep Gies, and in 1947 she had the diary published. The diary was translated into English in 1952 as The Diary of a Young Girl, and is now published in over 70 different languages.
Annelies or Anneliese Marie Frank was born on June 12, 1929, at the Maingau Red Cross Clinic in Frankfurt, Germany, the daughter of Edith (née Holländer) and Otto Heinrich Frank. She has an older sister named Margot. The Frank family was liberal Jewish, completely unconstrained by the customs and traditions of the religion. They lived in an assimilated community of Jews and citizens of different religions. Edith and Otto were people interested in scientific research; they had a large library in their house, they encouraged their children to read books. When Anne was born, the family lived in a rented two-story house at Marbachweg 307 in Frankfurt-Dornbusch. In 1931 he moved into a house on Ganghoferstrasse 24, in an area of Dornbusch called the Dichterviertel (Poets' quarter). Both houses are still standing today.
Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party in the 1933 federal election kazanAfter her death, Edith Frank went with her children to stay with her mother, Rosa, who lived in Aachen. Otto Frank had stayed in Frankfurt but moved there when he received a job offer from Amsterdam. He started working at Opekta Works, a company that produces pectin. During this period, Edith traveled to Aachen and Amsterdam to find a home for the family, eventually finding an apartment on the Merwedeplein in Rivierenbuurt, in a neighborhood of Jewish-German immigrants. At the end of December 1933, Edith went with her daughter, Margot, to her husband. The mother stayed with her grandmother, being able to reunite with her family in the Netherlands in February. The Frank family is among the 1933 Jews who fled Germany between 1939 and 300.000.
She started school after Anne and Margot moved to Amsterdam; Margot attended public school and Anne attended Montessori school. Although Margot initially had problems with her Dutch, she became a star student in Amsterdam. The mother also got used to school and made friends her age; Hannah Goslar became one of her closest friends.
In 1938, he founded a second company, Otto Pectacon, that produced spices used in sauce production. Hermann van Pels was hired at the company to consult on spices. He was a Jewish butcher and had fled Osnabrück with his family. In 1939 Edith's mother moved in with the Franks and stayed with them until her death in January 1942.
In May 1940, Germany invaded the Netherlands, where the occupying government began to impose discriminatory and restrictive laws against Jews. Otto Frank was planning to immigrate with his family to the United States, seeing it as "the only place they could live." However, due to the closure of the US consulate in Rotterdam and the loss of documents and applications, the visa application was never processed. Even if it had been processed, the US government at the time suspected that people with close relatives in Germany could be blackmailed into becoming Nazi agents.
Frank was given a notebook as a gift on his thirteenth birthday, June 12, 1942, when he was shopping with his father or mother. It was a signature book, covered in red and white checkered fabric, with a small lock on the front. Frank decided to use the notebook daily and started writing right away. In his article of June 20, 1942, he listed many restrictions placed on Dutch Jews.
Otto and Edith Frank were planning to go into hiding with their children on July 16, 1942. However, the Zentralstelle für jüdische Auswanderung (Jewish Immigration Central Office) called for Margot to be placed in the labor camp on July 5, so the family had to push the plan ten days forward. Shortly before they went into hiding, Anne gave a book, tea set, and marbles to her neighbor and friend Toosje Kupers. The Franks left a note to the Kupers family on July 6, asking them to take care of their cat, Moortje. Kupers told Anne, "I'm worried about my marbles because I'm afraid they might fall into the wrong hands," the Associated Press reported. Can you keep them for me for a while?'”
Life in the Back House
On the morning of July 6, 1942, with the help of their most trusted employee, the family settled into hiding in a three-story house accessed by a ladder that ran above the Opekta company on Prinsengracht. This place where they hide is in the diaries achterhuis (Back House). They left their apartment messy as if they were gone, and Otto had written a note that they could go to Switzerland. They didn't take Anne's cat, Moortje, with them, as they had to stay hidden. Jews were forbidden to use public transport, they walked for miles to get there. A library was placed in front of it to hide the door to the Back House.
His employees who knew their hiding place were Victor Kugler, Johannes Kleiman, Miep Gies and Bep Voskuijl. Gies' wife Jan Gies and Voskuijl's father Johannes Hendrik Voskuijl were among those who helped them during their hiding. These people were their only contact between their hiding place and the outside world, receiving information about war and political developments from them. They took care of all their needs, which became more difficult to meet as time passed; they provided their security and brought food and other necessities. Frank wrote in his diary of their dedication during the most dangerous times and their efforts to uplift the morale of the household. All of them were aware that if they were caught harboring Jews, they could face the death penalty.
On July 13, 1942, Hermann, Auguste Van Pels and their 16-year-old child Peter settled in the Back House, and in November Fritz Pfeffer, a dentist and family friend, arrived. Frank wrote that he was happy with the new people to talk to, but tension quickly arose within the group, who had to live in limited conditions. When she shared a room with Pfeffer, she found him insufferable and dissatisfied, and he thought Auguste van Pels, with whom he had clashed, was an idiot. He saw Hermann van Pels and Fritz Pfeffer as selfish, he thought they ate too much. Later on, she realized that she had a lot in common with Peter van Pels, whom she initially rejected because she found him shy and awkward, and began to become romantically close. He kissed her for the first time, but later on, his feelings for her waned as he questioned whether his feelings for her were due to the situation they were in or if he was really sincere. Anne Frank had a strong bond with those who helped them, and her father Otto remembered that his daughter looked forward to the helpers' visits. She had observed that Anne formed the closest relationship with Bep Voskuijl, “the young clerk … the two of them often whispered in the corner.”
young diary writer
Frank wrote in his diary about his relationships with family members and the differences in the character traits of each. He saw his father closest to him emotionally, and Otto later said, “Compared to Anne and Margot, we were better off, she was more attached to her mother. Margot never showed her emotions and didn't need support because she didn't have emotional fluctuations like Anne, which is why our relationship may have developed like this.” had made a statement. The brothers had grown closer to each other during the hiding period than before. However, Anne was at times jealous of her sister, criticizing her for not being as kind and calm as Margot. As the mother grew older, her relationship with her sister got better. Writing on January 12, 1944, Frank wrote, “Margot is getting better and better … She's not so sneaky these days and is turning into a true friend. He doesn't think I'm just a little baby to be ignored anymore." had written.
Frank often wrote of the difficulties in his relationship with his mother and his ambivalent attitude towards himself. On November 7, 1942, she described how she "despised" her mother and "confronted her with her negligence, sarcasticism, and heartlessness", finally saying, "She's not my mother." had written. As Frank later perused his diary, he was embarrassed by his previous writings and said, “Mother, is it really you talking about hate, oh Anne, how can you do that?” He realized that the differences between him and his mother were due to misunderstandings, and that it was his fault as well as her mother's, and that he was unnecessarily adding to her mother's troubles. With this awareness, she began to treat her mother more tolerantly and respectfully.
The brothers continued to study while they were in hiding and hoped to be able to return to school. Using the name of Bep Voskuijl, Margot attended her classes by distance learning and got high grades. Anne spent most of her time reading and studying, regularly journaling and editing (after 1944). In addition to writing daily experiences in her diary, she tells about her feelings, beliefs, dreams and goals; She also wrote on topics that she thought she couldn't talk to anyone. As her confidence in her writing skill developed and she grew older, she began to consider more abstract topics, such as her belief in God and how she defined human nature.
In his article on Wednesday, April 5, 1944, Frank explained that he wanted to be a journalist:
I finally realized that in order not to be ignorant, to have a life and to be a journalist, I need to study, yes that's what I want! I know I can write... but I keep seeing if he's really talented...
And if I'm not skilled enough to write a book or a newspaper article, I can always continue to write for myself. But I want more than that. I can't imagine being like my mother, Ms. van Daan, and all the other women who do their work and are forgotten. Other than a husband and children, I need something to dedicate myself to! …
I want to be useful, to enjoy the lives of all people, even those I have never met. I want to continue living even after I die! So I am grateful to God for giving me this gift with which I can improve myself and explain everything that is inside of me!
When I write, I can get rid of all my worries. My sorrows disappear, my soul is revived! But the real question is, will I be able to write something really good, be a newspaper or a writer?
He continued to write regularly in his diary, the last of which was dated 1 August 1944.
At 4:1944 am on August 10.30, 3, the Back House where the Franks were hiding was raided by SS officers, and Victor Kugler and Johannes Kleiman, who had helped them, were arrested, along with the eight people who were hiding. Eight people in hiding were first sent to the transit camp, Westerbork Concentration Camp. On September 1944, 8, 1944 people who were in hiding were transferred to the extermination camp Auschwitz. Anne and her older sister, Margot, were transferred to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in November 17.000. A typhus epidemic began in Bergen-Belsen, which, due to its semi-abandonment and poor sanitation, caused lice and XNUMX deaths. Three days after Margot's death, Anne Frank died of typhus.
Anne Frank's Diary
Of the eight hiding, only Otto Frank survived, and after Auschwitz was liberated by the Red Army in January 1945, he returned to Amsterdam in June 1945 and tried to reach his daughters. Miep Gies, who helped hide the Frank Family after receiving the news of Anne's death, delivered the diary that Anne had kept to give to Otto Frank when she returned. After Otto Frank read the diary, he stated that he did not know his daughter at all and sent a copy of this diary to a professor friend. Under pressure from his close circle, Otto Frank decided to publish the diary, and at first it was printed in 150 thousand copies. Anne's diary has now been translated into more than 60 languages and is the most widely read non-fiction book.