Today in History: The Second Phase of the Nuremberg Trial Started with the Doctors' Trials

Nurnberg Tribunal
Nurnberg Tribunal
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December 9 is the 343th day of the year (344th in leap years) according to the Gregorian calendar. The number of days left until the end of the year is 22.

Railways

  • 9 December 1871 Railway lines have been destroyed due to the heavy rainfall in and around Edirne.
  • 1938 – Ankara Train Station was put into service.

Olaylar

  • 1835 – Texas Revolution: The Texas Army captures San Antonio.
  • 1851 – In Montréal, the first North American branch of the YMCA is opened.
  • 1893 – The Golden Horn froze due to days of cold weather in Istanbul.
  • 1905 – In France, the law separating religious and state affairs is passed.
  • 1905 - The first two days passed peacefully Moscow UprisingArmed street clashes started in .
  • 1917 – World War I: Jerusalem is captured by General Edmund Allenby.
  • 1941 – II. World War II: Republic of China, Cuba, Guatemala and the Commonwealth of the Philippines; He declared war on Japan and Nazi Germany.
  • 1946 – The second phase of the Nuremberg International Military Criminal Tribunal began with the “Doctors' Trials”. During these trials, Nazi doctors who conducted experiments on humans were put on trial.
  • 1949 – The United Nations took over the administration in Jerusalem.
  • 1950 - Cold War: Harry Gold, World War II. During World War II, he was sentenced to 30 years in prison for giving the secrets of the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
  • 1953 - General Electric announces it will lay off all Communist personnel.
  • 1961 – Republic of Tanganyika became independent from the United Kingdom. kazanwas. The country united with the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba on April 26, 1964, forming the United Republic of Tanzania, which still exists today.
  • 1965 - Nikolai Podgorny becomes President of the Soviet Union.
  • 1966 - Barbados became a member of the United Nations.
  • 1971 – The United Arab Emirates became a member of the United Nations.
  • 1987 – Israel-Palestine conflicts: First Intifada begins in Gaza Strip and West Bank.
  • 1990 – Lech Wałęsa, leader of the Solidarność (Independent Autonomous Workers' Union “Solidarity”) movement, won the presidential election in Poland kazanwas.
  • 1992 - UK Prince Charles and Princess Diana announced their separation.
  • 1995 – Nâzım Hikmet's sculpture “The Man Walking Against the Wind” was placed in the garden of Ankara Atatürk Cultural Center with a ceremony attended by the Minister of Culture, Fikri Sağlar.
  • 2002 – A treaty is signed with the Indonesian Government, ending the 26-year war between separatists in Aceh.
  • 2002 – United Airlines, the second largest aviation company of the United States and the World, applied for a concordat.
  • 2004 - The Canadian Constitutional Court ruled that same-sex marriages are constitutional.

births

  • 1447 – Chenghua, Emperor of China (d. 1487)
  • 1594 – II. Gustaf Adolf, ruler of the Kingdom of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 (b. 1632)
  • 1608 – John Milton, English poet (d. 1674)
  • 1705 – Faustina Pignatelli, Italian mathematician and scientist (d. 1769)
  • 1751 – Maria Luisa of Parma, queen of Spain (d. 1819)
  • 1842 – Pyotr Alekseyevich Kropotkin, Russian writer and theorist of anarchism (d. 1921)
  • 1868 – Fritz Haber, German chemist and Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1934)
  • 1883 – Alexandros Papagos, Greek soldier and politician (d. 1955)
  • 1895 – Dolores Ibárruri, Spanish communist leader (known by the nickname “La Pasionaria” and “They Won't Pass!” (Spanish: ¡No pasarán!) (d. 1989)
  • 1901 – Ödön von Horváth, Hungarian-born dramatist and novelist who wrote in German (d. 1938)
  • 1901 – Jean Mermoz, French pilot (d. 1936)
  • 1902 – Margaret Hamilton, American film and stage actress (d. 1985)
  • 1905 Dalton Trumbo, American novelist and screenwriter (d. 1976)
  • 1911 – Broderick Crawford, American actor and Academy Award winner for Best Actor (d. 1986)
  • 1914 – Max Manus, Norwegian resistance fighter (during World War II) (d. 1996)
  • 1915 – Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, German opera singer (d. 2006)
  • 1916 – Adnan Veli Kanık, Turkish humorist and journalist (d. 1972)
  • 1916 Kirk Douglas, American actor (d. 2020)
  • 1922 – Semavi Eyice, Turkish Byzantium and art historian (d. 2018)
  • 1925 – Atıf Yılmaz, Turkish film director (d. 2006)
  • 1926 – David Nathan, English journalist (d. 2001)
  • 1926 – Henry Way Kendall, American physicist and Nobel Prize laureate in Physics (d. 1999)
  • 1929 – John Cassavetes, American film director and actor (d. 1989)
  • 1934 - Judi Dench, English actress
  • 1941 – Beau Bridges, American actress
  • 1941 – Mehmet Ali Birand, Turkish journalist and writer (d. 2013)
  • 1944 – Roger Short, British diplomat (d. 2003)
  • 1948 – Turgay Kıran, Turkish businessman and former Galatasaray manager
  • 1953 – John Malkovich, American actor, director, and producer
  • 1955 – Janusz Kupcewicz, Polish football player
  • 1956 – Jean-Pierre Thiollet, French writer
  • 1961 – Beril Dedeoğlu, Turkish academic, writer and politician (d. 2019)
  • 1962 – Felicity Huffman, American actress
  • 1963 - Masako, Empress of Japan
  • 1964 – Paul Landers, German musician
  • 1969 – Ayşe Arman, Turkish journalist
  • 1969 - Bixente Lizarazu, French football player
  • 1970 – Kara DioGuardi, American songwriter, producer, and singer
  • 1972 - Reiko Aylesworth is an American actress.
  • 1972 – Annalize Braakensiek, Australian model and actress
  • 1972 – Tré Cool, American drummer
  • 1972 – Frank Edwin Wright III (aka Tre Cool), German drummer
  • 1974 – Pippa Bacca, Italian artist and activist (d. 2008)
  • 1977 – Imogean Heap, British singer and songwriter
  • 1980 – Simon Helberg, American actor and comedian
  • 1980 – Ryder Hesjedal, retired Canadian mountain bike and road bike racer
  • 1983 – Neslihan Demir Darnel, Turkish volleyball player
  • 1983 - Dariusz Dudka is a Polish former football player.
  • 1987 - Hikaru Nakamura is an American professional chess player.
  • 1988 - Kwadwo Asamoah, Ghanaian football player
  • 1990 – Bora Cengiz, Turkish theater, cinema and TV series actress
  • 1991 – Choi Minho, South Korean singer, rapper and actor
  • 2001 – Ayşe Begüm Onbaşı, Turkish aerobic gymnast

Weapon

  • 638 – Sergios I, Patriarch of Constantinople (Istanbul) (b. ?)
  • 1107 – Ebu'l Vefa al-Baghdadi, founder of the Vefa'iyya sect (b. 1026)
  • 1437 – Sigismund becomes Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1368)
  • 1565 – IV. Pius was the Pope from 25 December 1559 to 9 December 1565 (b. 1499)
  • 1641 – Anthony van Dyck, Flemish painter (b. 1599)
  • 1669 – IX. Clemens, Pope from 20 June 1667 – 9 December 1669 (b. 1600)
  • 1674 – Edward Hyde, English statesman and historian (b. 1609)
  • 1718 – Vincenzo Coronelli, Franciscan priest who studied mathematics and geography (b. 1650)
  • 1761 – Tarabai is the first and only queen of the Maratha Confederation (b. 1675)
  • 1854 – Almeida Garrett, Portuguese poet, playwright, novelist, politician (b. 1799)
  • 1916 – Natsume Soseki, Japanese novelist (b. 1867)
  • 1919 – Władysław Kulczyński, Polish biologist, arachnologist, taxonomist, mountaineer, and teacher (b. 1854)
  • 1920 – Mollie McConnell, American actress (b. 1865)
  • 1941 – Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli, marshal of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (b. 1856)
  • 1945 – Yun Chi-ho, Korean educator, independent activist, and politician (b. 1864)
  • 1946 – Emir Shekib Arslan, Lebanese writer, politician and intellectual (b. 1869)
  • 1954 – Abdulkadir Udeh, Egyptian lawyer and prominent leader of the Muslim Brotherhood (b. 1907)
  • 1957 – Ali İhsan Sabis, Turkish soldier and politician (b. 1882)
  • 1967 – Hasan Cemil Çambel, Turkish soldier, politician and former President of the Turkish Historical Society (b. 1879)
  • 1968 – Harry Stenqvist, Swedish cyclist (b. 1893)
  • 1968 – Enoch L. Johnson, American political boss, sheriff, businessman, and racketeer (b. 1883)
  • 1970 – Artyom Mikoyan, Soviet Armenian aircraft designer (b. 1905)
  • 1971 – Ralph Bunche, American political scientist and diplomat (UN officer who received the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in Palestine (b. 1903)
  • 1988 – Radife Erten, Turkish composer and choirmaster (b. 1924)
  • 1991 – Berenice Abbott, American photographer (b. 1898)
  • 1996 – Mary Leakey, British archaeologist (b. 1913)
  • 1997 – Zehra Yıldız, Turkish soprano (b. 1956)
  • 2004 – Fevzi Akkaya, Turkish engineer, co-founder of STFA Group (b. 1907)
  • 2005 – György Sándor, Hungarian pianist (b. 1912)
  • 2013 – Eleanor Parker, American actress (b. 1922)
  • 2016 – Coral Atkins, English actress (b. 1936)
  • 2017 – Leonid Bronevoy, Nika Prize winner Soviet-Russian actor (b. 1928)
  • 2018 – Yigal Bashan, Israeli singer, actor, songwriter, and composer (b. 1950)
  • 2018 – Riccardo Giacconi, Italian-American physicist (d. 1931)
  • 2019 – Marie Fredriksson, Swedish pop-rock musician and singer (b. 1958)
  • 2019 – May Stevens, American feminist artist, political activist, educator, and author (b. 1924)
  • 2019 – Imre Varga, Hungarian sculptor, painter, designer and graphic artist (b. 1923)
  • 2020 – VJ Chitra, Indian actress, dancer, model and television host (b. 1992)
  • 2020 – Gordon Forbes, South African professional tennis player and author (b. 1934)
  • 2020 – Vyacheslav Kebic, Belarusian politician (b. 1936)
  • 2020 – Paolo Rossi, Italian football player (b. 1956)
  • 2020 – Mohammed Yazdi, Iranian cleric (b. 1931)

Holidays and special occasions

  • World Anti-Corruption Day
  • Storm: Midwinter Storm

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