Urology Specialist Op. Dr. Mesut Yeşil gave information about the subject. Cystitis, which means inflammation of the urinary tract, is one of the most common diseases in the urinary tract and reproductive system. Cystitis, which has a much higher incidence in women, is diagnosed by at least 20 percent of women at least once in their lifetime. If not treated in time, cystitis, a disease that can spread to affect the kidneys, can cause permanent damage to the bladder and kidneys. How is cystitis diagnosed? What are the ways to prevent cystitis?
What are the symptoms of cystitis?
- Burning and pain when urinating (may last after urinating),
- frequent urination,
- Spread of pain to the groin and anus,
- vomiting and nausea,
- Your urine may be cloudy, foul-smelling.
- There may be a feeling of pain during sexual intercourse.
How is cystitis diagnosed?
A urologist can make a diagnosis based on a description of the complaints and tests. These tests include urinalysis, cystoscopy (observation of the urethra and bladder with a special instrument), and a special x-ray called an intravenous pylogram. These examinations are especially done to investigate the factors that predispose to the infection. Urine culture may also be required to identify the bacteria causing the infection. Cystitis is not a major disease if treated promptly and appropriately. If cystitis and its underlying cause are not treated, it becomes chronic and debilitating.
What are the causes of cystitis?
Normally bacteria; They live in the genitals and anus. Sometimes these bacteria cross the lower urinary tract and reach the bladder. Bacteria that reach the bladder are expelled by urination. However, if the number of bacteria coming into the bladder is more than excreted, they cause inflammation in the bladder and later in the kidneys.
Contamination may occur during sexual intercourse or in cases where genital cleansing is low, as well as due to prolonged urinary retention, urinary tract constricting diseases, and low estrogen levels in menopause.
Since the urethra in women is much shorter than that of men, it is easier for bacteria to reach the bladder from the external environment. Therefore, the incidence of cystitis in women is much higher. At least 20 percent of women will get cystitis once in their lifetime.
Although rare, the bacteria that cause cystitis can reach the bladder via the kidneys and urinary tracts, from top to bottom or from the infection foci in nearby tissues, via lymph.
The most common cause of cystitis is the microorganism called Escherichia coli (E.coli, coli bacillus). This bacterium can normally be found in the large intestine and can reach the bladder through sexual intercourse.
How is cystitis treated?
Cystitis is treated with antibiotics. Before starting the treatment, samples should be taken for urine culture and antibiogram, effective antibiotics should be used in urinary tract infections until the results are obtained, these drugs should be changed if necessary according to the results of the antibiogram. Treatment may be prolonged in chronic infections.
What are the ways to prevent cystitis?
- Wipe from front to back after using the toilet. Thus, you prevent bacteria from your vaginal and rectal area from entering the urinary tract.
- Do not hold your urine. Urinate as often as possible. This way you flush out the bacteria in the bladder.
- Try to urinate within ten minutes after sexual intercourse.
- Providing adequate lubrication during sexual intercourse will reduce the damage to the urethra.
- If anal intercourse is being made, then the vaginal area should not be touched or if it will be, it should be cleaned thoroughly.
- Drinking plenty of water throughout the day (8 glasses a day if possible) will increase urine output and therefore the excretion of bacteria.
- Consume beverages such as coffee, tea, alcohol as little as possible. May have irritating effects on the bladder.
- Do not allow your genital area to remain moist for a long time. Do not wear tight underwear with nylon. Humidity creates an environment that facilitates the growth of bacteria.
- Change your underwear every day and use cotton underwear.
The course of cystitis
With proper treatment, the symptoms of cystitis disappear within 24 hours. However, the course of the disease depends on the type of the causative microbe and the elimination of risk factors. In poorly treated cases, the disease may become chronic.
cystitis in men
Because of the length of the urethra, cystitis in men often has other causes. It's like an enlarged prostate pressing on the urethra.
- Frequent or urgent need to urinate
- Cloudy, foul-smelling, bloody urine (sometimes),
- Mild fever (sometimes).
Cystitis is not a common ailment in men. It is easy to treat, and the underlying cause must also be treated to prevent recurrence.
A urologist can make a diagnosis based on a description of the complaints and tests. These tests include urinalysis, cystoscopy (observation of the urethra and bladder with a special instrument), and a special x-ray called an intravenous pylogram. Urine culture may also be required to identify the bacteria causing the infection. Cystitis is not a major disease if treated promptly and appropriately. If cystitis and its underlying cause are not treated, it can become chronic.