Obstetrics and Gynecology Specialist Op. Dr. Meral Sönmezer gave important information about the subject. Anemia, known as anemia, occurs when there are not enough healthy red blood cells (red blood cells) to carry oxygen to organs and tissues. Because women lose blood regularly during their menstrual cycles, women are more prone to anemia than men. Pregnancy is a process that increases the risk of anemia, and the anemia that occurs during this period negatively affects the health of the mother and baby unless treated. Although iron absorption increases especially in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy, iron supplementation is necessary since dietary iron is not enough to meet the requirement. What are the Symptoms of Anemia in Pregnancy? What problems does anemia cause during pregnancy? Anemia treatment in pregnancy
Anemia is considered if the hemoglobin level is below 11 mg/dl during pregnancy. Anemia in pregnancy is most commonly seen due to iron and folic acid deficiency. Apart from these, vitamin B12 deficiency also causes anemia. Therefore, considering the state of anemia deficiency; It can be treated with iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation.
What problems does anemia in pregnancy cause?
- increased risk of preterm birth,
- Risk of postpartum bleeding
- Intrauterine growth retardation,
- increased risk of low birth weight,
- Postpartum maternal infection risk
- Delay in the recovery of the mother after childbirth,
- Normal blood loss during childbirth reaches a dangerous level in anemic women,
- It carries serious risks and dangerous consequences such as maternal deaths.
Therefore, in terms of maternal and infant health, it is of great importance for all expectant mothers to follow their blood values very well.
What are the Symptoms of Anemia in Pregnancy?
Anemia, which has symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, loss of appetite, hair loss, thinning of nails, breakage, gastrointestinal problems, headache, dizziness, shortness of breath, palpitations, sleep disorder, is most often manifested by complaints of weakness and fatigue.
If these symptoms are observed in expectant mothers or observed in routine controls, iron evaluation is performed. If there is iron deficiency, the reasons should be investigated thoroughly. Although iron deficiency leads to serious risks, its excessive use also causes the proliferation of carcinogenic cells in the body. For this reason, external supplements should definitely be under the control of a specialist.
Anemia treatment in pregnancy
Anemia in pregnancy is diagnosed by blood test. If there is a planned pregnancy, the hemoglobin level is determined by having a blood test before getting pregnant. In the case of an unexpected, surprise pregnancy, the hemoglobin level can be measured with a blood test to be performed in the first weeks of pregnancy. Thus, iron deficiency is detected by the hemoglobin and ferritin levels measured in the early stages of pregnancy. Although the blood iron levels of the expectant mother are normal, if supplemental iron is not given from the second half of pregnancy, the blood values will decrease rapidly. Therefore, although your blood count values are normal, iron supplementation is required after the 20th week at the latest.
The aim of the treatment of anemia in pregnancy is to replenish the iron stores of the expectant mother. Therefore, an iron-rich diet supplemented with iron supplements is applied. Due to the increase in the needs of the fetus and placenta and the increase in blood volume during pregnancy, expectant mothers should meet the need for 2 mg of iron, which is 4 times more than the pre-pregnancy period. This iron requirement, which increases after the second half of pregnancy, is approximately 6-7 mg per day, and the daily iron requirement in pregnancy reaches 30 milligrams in total. For this reason, at least 27 milligrams of iron supplementation per day is ideal during pregnancy. During this period, consumption of red meat and foods containing vitamin C should not be neglected. In order to replenish the iron stores, the treatment is continued for another 3 months, even if the anemia improves.
During the treatment of anemia; side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, stomach discomfort can be seen. If such side effects are observed, iron pills can be taken after meals to minimize the side effects. During the treatment of anemia, expectant mothers should pay attention to the consumption of foods such as milk and dairy products, calcium salts, tea and coffee that reduce iron absorption, and to take antacid-derived drugs and should not consume them together with iron-containing foods. Vitamin C increases iron absorption. For this reason, it is more appropriate to take iron drugs with orange juice and on an empty stomach to increase the absorption of iron. In addition, it is necessary to consume foods rich in iron such as red meat, eggs, legumes, cereals, fresh vegetables, dried fruits.
It is very important to take the necessary precautions against anemia and iron deficiency during pregnancy. For this reason, you should not neglect your controls and regularly use the vitamin and iron medications given by your doctor.