In the summer we spend in the shadow of the pandemic, it is necessary to pay more attention than ever to many issues, from nutrition to holiday plans. Acıbadem Kozyatağı Hospital Internal Medicine Specialist Prof. Dr. Tevfik Rıfkı Evrenkaya said, “Summer is a time when vacation plans are made, social distance is shortened and attention is more distracted. With the increase in the rate of social vaccination, we are a little more comfortable with the Covid-19 measures, we move more freely. However, the Covid-19 outbreak is still a risk and does not allow for this comfort and shortening of social distances! On the one hand, the risk of transmission of Covid-19 continues, on the other hand, summer-specific infectious diseases complicate and limit our lives. “Some rules must be followed to avoid summer infections.” prof. Dr. Tevfik Rıfki Evrenkaya; He explained the ways to prevent the most common bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal infections in the summer, and made important warnings and suggestions.
It is transmitted through faeces, poorly washed hands and food. There is high fever, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, loss of appetite and malaise. For protection, hand and toilet hygiene should be taken care of, fruits and vegetables should be washed with plenty of vinegar and water. In its treatment, antimicrobial drugs prescribed by a physician should be used. Sometimes hospital treatment may be required.
It is mostly caused by toxins from bacteria called staphylococci. Rarely, E.coli and salmonella can also cause it. Staphylococcal toxins are most commonly found in raw/cooked meat, cream, ice cream and exposed foods. Vomiting, diarrhea and malaise begin 6-8 hours after eating the dish. Although this process is noisy, it completes on its own in about 12 hours. There is no need for antibiotic treatment. Lost fluids and electrolytes are supplemented orally or intravenously.
Rotavirus is a virus that causes intestinal inflammation, especially in children under 5 years of age. The disease is manifested by severe fever, diarrhea and vomiting, is transmitted with feces, and is seen in all seasons. It can cause death with severe dehydration. There is no specific medicine, a vaccine has been developed to protect it.
It is seen in people who travel for reasons such as travel, vacation, business trip. The disease occurs with microbes called E.coli or giardia. It is generally seen more frequently in trips to underdeveloped geographies. Antimicrobial drugs are used in its treatment. The main reason is the lack of hand and toilet hygiene.
Typhoid and paratyphoid are the most typical examples. High fever, malaise, diarrhea, joint pain, abdominal pain are common. It is transmitted through feces. Its intermediaries are hands and food. Usually, hospitalization and treatment with antibiotic support are required.
It is a disease most commonly seen in children, transmitted by close contact, and most commonly caused by coxakie and enteroviruses. As the name suggests, it is characterized by very painful sores in the mouth and painful swellings on the inside of the hands and feet. There is no specific treatment. Pain relievers are used in the treatment.
It is an inflammation of the conjunctiva that covers the whites of the eyes. It is very painful. It is usually caused by ecoviruses, enteroviruses. It is transmitted by pools, shared towels, dirty hands. Since bacterial infection is usually added to it, it is treated with antibiotic eye drops.
Varicella zoster virus is the causative agent, it is a very contagious disease. It is transmitted by contact or by air. There is no specific treatment. Vaccination has been carried out effectively since 1995.
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)
It is a viral disease, especially a deadly viral disease mediated by ticks living in Tokat-Kastamonu provinces. There is no specific treatment. It is necessary not to remove the biting tick indiscriminately and to apply to a health institution.
There is a very wide group of symptoms, it affects every system. It is transmitted by a microorganism called Borrelia. Successful results are obtained with antibiotic treatment.
External ear diseases
They are known as "external otitis" or "swimmer's ear". They are very common in the summer season. Bacterial or fungal infections. They are very painful and cause hearing loss. They are formed as a result of swimming, diving, mixing the ear with a foreign body. They are treated with painkillers and antimicrobial ear drops. It is necessary to use earplugs while swimming and to avoid putting the earwax into the external ear canal.
Urinary tract infections
It is very common in summer, especially in women. The short urethra of women makes them vulnerable to these infections. It is common after pool/sauna use and sexual intercourse. Lower urinary tract infections are limited to the bladder and are called "cystitis". Kidney inflammation (pyelonephritis) occurs in upper urinary tract infections. Cystitis is treated more easily and in a short time. prof. Dr. Tevfik Rıfkı Evrenkaya said, “Taking care of personal hygiene and making use of places such as pools and toilets that are sure to be clean reduces the possibility of infection. In women, front-to-back cleansing should be emphasized so that self-contamination is avoided. Regardless of the season, the way to prevent infections is through personal and environmental hygiene. It is possible to significantly reduce these infections by washing hands with plenty of soap.