Decreased visual functions and severe headache may be signs of a brain tumor. The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland located in the bone structure at the base of the brain called Sella Turcica. The pituitary gland, which has a great effect on our body, is a vital organ that regulates the secretion of many hormones such as growth hormone, prolactin hormone, and thyrotropin.
Head of Department of Brain and Nerve Surgery, Yeni Yüzyıl University Gaziosmanpaşa Hospital, Assoc. Dr. Mete Karatay said, 'Tumors in the pituitary gland cause many disorders. Therefore, the symptoms should be taken into account and the tumor should be intervened before it grows. ' He gave information about the subject.
Pituitary adenomas take the 3rd place after all tumors located in the head, after those originating from the brain itself and its membrane. So it is a relatively common tumor. The reasons for its occurrence are not fully understood. Rarely, they are seen together with inherited diseases.
Tumors arising in the pituitary gland show symptoms either due to excessive hormone secretion or due to excessive growth and compression and spread to the surrounding tissues. Adenomas that do not secrete hormones usually grow slowly and can remain asymptomatic for years. Those who secrete hormones show early symptoms due to the effects of hormones in the body.
In pituitary adenomas, headache, weakness, decreased visual clarity, vision loss, limitation of eyeball movements, double vision, drooping of the eyelid or visual field (especially loss of the outer quadrants of the eye) can be seen, and brain tumors such as pituitary adenoma should come to mind in these cases. . Other common complaints are the following complaints that develop due to the hormone secretion of the pituitary gland.
In excess of prolactin; menstrual irregularities, milk secretion from breast tissue, development in breast tissue, sexual dysfunction in men, decrease in sperm quantity
In excess of growth hormone; excessive elongation in adolescence; In adulthood, it causes elongation of the extremities of the body parts such as the chin, tip of the nose, hands and feet, heart problems, sweating, high blood sugar and joint problems.
In ACTH excess; fat in abnormal areas of the body, muscle weakness, high blood pressure and blood sugar, skin oily and acne development, stretch marks, psychological problems
In excess of TSH; weight loss, palpitations, bowel problems, sweating, restlessness, and irritability
In the excess of FSH - LH; menstrual irregularities, sexual function problems, infertility
The treatment of pituitary adenomas is done by the endocrinology and neurosurgery units. From an endocrinological standpoint, it is important to restore the body's hormonal balance. Neurosurgeons focus on relieving the pressure on nerve structures. Therefore, these patients are usually treated with a team of endocrinologists and neurosurgeons. Surgery is usually performed in the nasal cavity and is considered one of the difficult neurosurgical operations. The surgeon uses what we call a microscope and endoscope to reach and remove the tumor. Today, the method we call endoscopic surgery is used more frequently. With this method, there is no external scar and shortens the length of stay in the hospital.