Vehicle safety and technologies have shown great improvements, especially in recent years. The bodies and cabin parts of the vehicles are strengthened, airbags become standard and different safety elements are added to the vehicles. Brake systems, which are a critical part of these systems, prevent possible collisions and accidents and protect both us and other drivers and pedestrians in the traffic.
Therefore, in this article, we will examine the brake systems in vehicles and look at their types. But first of all, what is the automobile brake system, let's start from there if you wish.
What is the Brake System?
Brake refers to the mechanism used to reduce the speed of a vehicle or to stop its motion. Brake systems, on the other hand, define systems that are mostly used in motor vehicles and have more complex structures.
This mechanism for slowing or stopping the vehicle should not be weak, because a weak brake system is not enough to slow the vehicle down safely. While designing this system, the condition of the vehicle is taken into account and the brake system is added to the vehicle in the most appropriate and balanced way.
In primitive and old brake systems, when you press your foot on the brake pedal, the wheels were locked with the help of discs. However, modern braking systems are used in today's cars and thanks to these systems, it is tried to prevent situations such as the vehicles being thrown, locked or overturned.
So how do the braking systems in cars work? Let's examine it together.
How Do Automobile Brake Systems Work?
The stronger and more balanced the brake systems in the vehicles, the safer the vehicles. Different systems are used together to provide this security in modern vehicles used today.
But basically, when the brake pedal is pressed, the location of the hydraulic fluid in the system changes and this change is transmitted to the brake discs by means of a piston. The effect of the friction force on the disc also causes the vehicle to slow down and stop.
The more force is applied, the more pressure the brake discs are subjected to and the slower the rotational speed of the wheel. Disc brakes are mostly located at the front of vehicles, but disc brakes can be found on all four wheels. But where the brakes are of paramount importance is in the front. Because braking is best done by the front wheels, and the braking effect is felt mainly on the front wheels.
According to the working principle of brake systems, we can move on to the types of brake systems.
Types of Brake Systems
Brake systems and types; varies according to the model, size or characteristics of the vehicles. The most used brake systems today are as follows:
● Hydraulic Brake System
The hydraulic brake utilizes hydraulic oil pressure while operating the vehicle's braking system. The working principle of this system is quite simple. When the brake is pressed, the piston moves and the calipers are closed with the pressure of the oil in the hydraulic mechanism.
When the calipers are closed, the brake pads and the discs on the wheels stick to each other. In this way, the vehicle slows down or stops.
● Air Brake System
Air brake systems are often used in vehicles called heavy vehicles or heavy commercial vehicles. This system works with a device called an air compressor and the air is released when the brake is pressed. The evacuation of the air enables the braking.
When the oil runs out in hydraulic brake systems, it is not possible to brake. However, this is not the case with air brake systems. In this system, the vehicle tries to stop when the air is empty.
ABS Brake System
The ABS brake system, which is used as "Anti-lock Braking System" in English and "Anti-Lock Braking System" in Turkish, prevents the wheels of the vehicles from locking during sudden braking.
This brake system, which was invented to prevent hydraulic brakes from locking the vehicle wheels, is intended to provide steering control. This system spins one wheel less than the others or activates when one wheel is not turning, reducing the braking on that wheel.
● ASR Brake System
The ASR brake system is a system developed to prevent the vehicle from spinning. ASR, which means "Anti Skid System", works together with the ABS system and is activated when the vehicle starts to spin.
The "Electronic Stability Program" or shortly the ESP brake system is a system developed to prevent the vehicle from skidding. However, this system works in accordance with ABS and ASR systems. This system, which follows the movements of the drivers, is activated in case of any instability or skidding and ensures that the vehicle stays safely on the road.
● EBD System
The EBD system, which stands for "Electronic Brake Force Distribution" in English and translated into Turkish as "Electronic Brake Force Distribution System", serves to equalize the power distribution in the rear and front brakes. Under normal conditions, when braking, the vehicle steers from the rear to the front. Thanks to the EBD system, the strength of the brakes of the vehicle is regulated and the rear part is approached to the ground.
● BAS System
BAS system is a system that is activated in case of emergency. This system, which aims to give drivers time during sudden braking, helps to react even if a low pressure is applied to the brake.
● Magnetic Braking System
Magnetic braking system, also known as engine brake, is the general name of the deceleration forces in the vehicle. The engine starts to decelerate when the accelerator pedal is released and stops after a while due to these deceleration forces.
● MSR System
MSR system is the abbreviation of "Engine Brake Regulation System". This system tries to prevent the vehicle from slipping on slippery surfaces.
● Hill Start Support System
Hild Holder, also known as the “Hill Start Assist System”, is the general name of the brake system that prevents the vehicle from slipping on a slope or any slope. When you want to start your vehicle on a slope or on a slope, the Hild Holder system applies the brakes to the clutch engagement point of your vehicle. When you press the gas, braking ceases and your vehicle moves safely.
In the EPB system, also called "Electronic Parking Brake", the brake calipers of the car and the engine are connected to each other. This system has been developed especially for passenger cars. It is used to keep the vehicle stable on straight roads and ramps.
The EPB system is traditionally used as a parking brake and is often activated by a button on the console. This system basically replaces the hand brake.