The Golden Gate Bridge (English: The Golden Gate Bridge) is a suspension bridge over the Golden Gate Strait at the entrance to San Francisco Bay in California.
Currently, it is the seventh longest suspension bridge in the world. The length of the bridge is 2,73 km, the distance between feet is 1,28 km, its height reaches 235 meters. There are six lanes for vehicle traffic. The bridge connects San Francisco with the northern areas of Marin County and the more sparse settlement Napa and Sonoma Valley.
The idea of building a bridge to the bay dates back to 1872. However, the drafts made in those years were not touched until the 1920s, when the ferry capacities reached the limit. The construction of the bridge was carried out between January 5, 1933 and May 27, 1937, under the direction of controversial chief engineer Josef B. Strauss. 11 workers died during construction.
In the construction of the Golden Gate Bridge, the technical challenges of the time have been overcome and numerous records for bridge construction have been broken. These; The highest foot (227 m), the longest (2.332 m), the thickest rope (92 cm) and the largest underwater foundations. These foundations had to be made in very strong currents of the strait. Another surprising thing is that it was done at a time of widespread unemployment and hunger, and as much as $ 35.000.000 was spent. The bridge weighs 887.000 tons in total. 600.000 rivets, the last of which is solid gold, hold the beams of the towers and beams together. The bridge remained the longest suspension bridge in the world until the construction of the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in New York in 1964.
The safety net, which was stretched under the bridge during construction, saved the lives of 19 employees. These people later formed what they called the Half-Way-to-Hell-Club. When this network could not hold a falling construction scaffold in its completion phase, 10 people who fell with the pier lost their lives.
Origin of the Name
The bridge got its name from the 1,6 km wide strait that opens into San Francisco Bay (Golden Gate or Chrysoplae). It is said to be named so because it reminds us of the Golden Horn, which was named by the captain Chrysoceras or Golden Horn in Istanbul, given by Captain John C. Fremont at the time of the attack on gold in California in 1846.
At twelve noon on May 27, 1937, it was opened to traffic with a telegram signal given by President Franklin D. Roosevelt from the White House. At the opening, traditionally the ribbon, not the chain, was cut.
100.000 vehicles use the bridge daily, and this number increases by around 10% per year. The cost of returning to the city is $ 2,50 per axle. Unlike the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, the Golden Gate Bridge has been profitable for decades, although protection is costly because it is not made of stainless metal.
While it was planned to be painted gray in the initial planning, the American Navy wanted the bridge to be painted in black and yellow stripes so that it could be easily seen from the ships. Architect in the finishing phase Edwin Morrow When he saw the bridge with red stainless protective primer paint, he made his decision. Separating from the sea and sky, he chose the warm orange color he thought would be in harmony with the nature on the beach. This color is also used in warning signs on highways and international orange is called.
Regular paint renewal is the main work in the maintenance of the bridge. The paint protects the steel parts from rusting. There is a misconception that the entire bridge was painted at regular intervals. In reality, when the bridge was first painted, it was coated with a lead compound primer and stainless protector and was not repainted except for repairing the required parts for the first 27 years. In 1965, rusting progressed so much that a program was started to scratch off all of the paint, paint it with plastic-based inorganic zinc-silicate primer paint, and apply vinyl-based covering varnish on it. In 1990, the covering varnish was replaced with an acrylic emulsion that meets the standards of the time. This repainting program ended in 1995. Today, a team of 38 painters works to repair the worn parts of the paint.
Symbol of the city
The Golden Gate Bridge is a symbol of the city of San Francisco and the entire San Francisco Bay Area, and for many the United States as well as the Statue of Liberty in New York.