Aesthetic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Specialist Op. Dr. Ercan Demirbağ gave information on the subject. The biggest organ of our body is the skin. Leather has a very complex structure. A wide variety of cells and tissues are involved in this complex structure. What we call a tumor are masses arising from these cells or tissues. So 'tumor = mass'. Skin tumors = lumps can be benign or malignant.
BAD MALLIC SKIN TUMORS
The main cause of skin cancer is ultraviolet rays from the sun. Electric lamps emitting ultraviolet rays and tanning artificial light sources can also cause skin cancers. It is a known fact that the depletion of the ozone layer, which protects the world against ultraviolet rays, causes a serious increase in skin cancers.
Most at risk are:
- Light skinned people,
- Those who have freckles easily on their skin,
- Those with a large number of moles (nevi) and their different shapes and sizes,
- Those with skin cancer in their family,
- Those who spend a lot of time outdoors,
- Those who are near the equator, at high altitudes or exposed to intense sunlight throughout the year,
- Radioactive radiation therapy (radiotherapy) applications for any reason,
- Open wounds that have remained unhealed for many years,
- Tar, pitch, arsenic etc. Chronic exposure to chemical carcinogens such as
- Skin cancers may develop due to reasons such as exposure to chronic micro traumas.
Malignant skin tumors can be examined under 3 headings. Basal Cell Cancer (BCC) arising from basal cells in the epidermis, Squamous Cell Cancer (SCC) arising from squamous (squamous) cells, Malignant Melanoma (MM) arising from melanocytes (melanin-producing cells)
BCC; It is the most common skin cancer. It progresses slowly, does not spread throughout the body, and is rarely life-threatening. It creates regional destruction.
SCC; It is another common type of skin cancer. It is common on lips, face and ears. It can spread to lymph nodes and sometimes internal organs. If left untreated, SCC becomes life threatening.
MM; less common. Its frequency is increasing, especially in those living in sunny areas. It is the most dangerous type of skin cancers. However, if diagnosed early, there is a chance that it can be fully cured. Delay in diagnosis and treatment is often fatal.
Basal and Squamous Cell Cancers can be of various appearances. Generally:
- In the form of a small mass of white and pink color,
- The surface is smooth, shiny or in the shape of a hollow,
- In the form of a dry, scaly, red spot,
- Crusty, red, lump-shaped,
- In the form of small masses side by side with the shell,
- With capillaries on it,
- They can be in the form of a white patch that looks like a scar.
- It is necessary to consider that such lesions that do not heal in 2-4 weeks and can cause bleeding and pain may be cancer.
Malignant Melanoma can usually start from a mole or a normal skin. The following changes that occur in any moles should be considered as warning criteria in terms of cancer.
- Edge irregularity
- Being in different color tones
- Scab over
- Rash around
- Hair growth
- More than> 6 mm or an abnormal increase in size.
Moles with one or more of these changes should be surgically removed and subjected to histopathological examination in terms of Malign Melanoma. If all these variables seem confusing to you, it's important to remember this. Recognize your skin and examine it regularly from head to toe. If you come across anything that makes you suspicious, immediately consult a Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery specialist! Plastic surgeons surgically remove the tumor without damaging the functional structure and providing the most aesthetic appearance. With the histopathological examination of the removed tissue, it can be understood whether it was completely removed or not, and whether there is any residue on the floor.
How is it treated?
Treatment depends on the type of cancer, growth stage and location. If the cancer is small, the procedure can be easily performed on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia. In these small and less dangerous types, scraping (curettage) or removal of cancer cells (dessication) with electric current can also be performed. However, the reliability of these methods in terms of treatment is low, and the possibility of leaving scars and deformation is high. If the cancer is large, has spread to the lymph nodes or to another part of the body, major surgical procedures may be needed. Other possible treatment options in skin cancers are cryotherapy (destruction of cancer cells by freezing), radiotherapy (radiation therapy), chemotherapy (administration of anticancer drugs).
Before starting treatment, you should evaluate these methods with your doctor and look for answers to the following questions.
- Which treatment method is safer in terms of tumor destruction?
- Which option is right for you?
- How effective is it for your cancer type?
- What are the possible risks and side effects?
- How much can the functional and cosmetic results you expect can be achieved?
- As a result of the answers, it is necessary to apply the ideal treatment method without delay. In late cases, it becomes difficult to provide complete treatment.