As a result of the blockage in the main nutrient vessels of the heart, the heart muscle cannot be fed adequately and the heart muscle is damaged due to lack of oxygen, which is called 'Heart Attack'.
As a result of the blockage in the main nutrient vessels of the heart, the heart muscle is damaged due to insufficient nutrition and lack of oxygen, which is called 'Heart Attack'. Although the majority of them occur with the occlusion of the heart vessel with a clot, it can also occur with the complete occlusion of the blood vessels that develop in the heart vessels at lower rates.
Heart attack, which is a sudden and fatal disease, is still known as the most common cause of death in the world and in our country.
As well as genetic factors, stress, sadness, anxiety, sudden emotional changes in lifestyle trigger the development of a heart attack, although it is more common in later ages, it can also occur at a young age for all these reasons.
Head of Cardiology Department, Yeni Yüzyıl University Gaziosmanpaşa Hospital, Prof. Dr. Nuri Kurtoğlu, by giving general information about heart attack; made explanations about symptoms, risk factors and precautions.
What are the symptoms of heart attack?
Pain in the chest that lasts for more than 20 minutes, in the middle part of the chest, in the so-called faith board, can be severely pressing, crushing, and burning pain is often the first sign of a heart attack. In addition to the pain hitting the arms and chin, shortness of breath, dizziness, vomiting, nausea, cold sweat, intense anxiety and fear of death may accompany. Sometimes, especially in diabetic patients, with low intensity complaints, sometimes with almost no complaints, an unnoticed heart attack can be experienced. In some types of heart attacks, a complaint that can be called only stomach pain without chest pain may be the first finding. In addition, heart attack symptoms for women may be different. In women, complaints of shortness of breath, weakness, feeling of badness, nausea instead of chest pain cause a delay in admission to the hospital. For this reason, it is vital that these patient groups are more alert about the crisis and apply to the hospital if their complaints continue.
What Are Heart Attack Risk Factors?
Being over the age of 45 for men and 55 for women, having diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, low good cholesterol, high bad cholesterol, other arteries obstruction (paralysis, leg veins obstruction), first degree relatives ( Factors such as the detection of vascular occlusion at an early age, a sedentary life and a stressful lifestyle in parents, siblings and children) create a risk for heart attack.
What to Do When Heart Attack?
If it is thought that a heart attack is thought, it is recommended that the person first take himself to a safe area, move to a position where he can sit if standing, pull over immediately if he is driving and seek help. If there are no people nearby who could be asked for help, the emergency number 112 should be called. If there is a chance to take aspirin, chewing an aspirin during this time can be life-saving. Because aspirin significantly reduces deaths due to heart attack. Although taking a sublingual vasodilator pill reduces pain and increases blood flow, it does not affect the course of a heart attack. Irregular heartbeat during a crisis, especially if the pulse slows down, coughing may be helpful in regulating the heartbeat.
What Should Be Done After a Heart Attack Diagnosis?
If the heart attack is due to complete occlusion of the heart vessel, it is very important to open the vessel as soon as possible to minimize the damage. The best way to achieve this is to perform coronary angiography to the patient and then open the occluded vessel with balloon and stent. Before reaching this stage, some blood thinners and clot-dissolving drugs are applied to the patient.
When Should Angio Be Performed After Crisis Diagnosis?
In the emergency application of the patient, a heart strip called EKG is taken without wasting time. Accordingly, it can usually be decided whether angiography is required or not immediately. Patients in whom angiography is required immediately are cases in which the heart vessel is completely occluded. In some heart attacks, there is a serious blockage in the vein and it is not completely occluded. In order to confirm the diagnosis, tests are performed in the blood that measure whether the heart is damaged. If the test result is found to be high, the patient is taken to intensive care and angiography is planned within 24 hours. During this period, if the patient's chest pain continues or the patient becomes clinically worse, angiography can be taken immediately.
What Will Happen After Angiography?
After angiography is performed on the patient, the occluded vessel can be opened with a stent, although less often, bypass surgery may be required. In the next follow-up, the basic point for the survival of the patient is the damage received by the heart from the crisis. For this reason, the shorter the time between the onset of the crisis and the opening of the vein, the more favorable the patient progresses. At this stage, the contraction force of the heart is determined by cardiac ultrasound, called echocardiography, and a kind of damage assessment study is performed. According to these results, the drugs that should be used by the patient are determined. After this stage, what the patient needs to do is to use his medicines regularly and to make the necessary lifestyle changes. If he is smoking, he should quit smoking, exercise regularly at least five days a week, blood pressure control should be done, and an appropriate diet should be determined by taking the patient's blood fat and cholesterol levels into account.