What is Fibroid? What are Myoma Symptoms and Treatment? Myomas, which are abnormal smooth muscle proliferation seen in the uterus, are the most common benign tumor of the uterus. They are well-circumscribed masses and may be in different locations (intramural, subsereous, intracavitary, pedunculated, etc.).
Although estrogen hormone is blamed as the cause, familial predisposition is known to play a role. It is a hormone-dependent tumor and is seen in one in 5 women (20%) during the reproductive period.
Due to the decrease in hormone levels with menopause, a decrease in size is observed. They are observed more frequently in obese and non-giving patients.
In addition to increasing size and causing pain during pregnancy, subserious myomas in large sizes and compressing the uterine cavity cause infertility, miscarriage, recurrent pregnancy loss, and preterm delivery.
What are the Symptoms of Myoma?
While it usually does not cause symptoms, the most common reason for referral to the clinic is irregular, long, severe bleeding and the anemia caused by this, as it affects the ability of the uterus to contract negatively. Most of the time, patients think that bleeding is normal and develop adaptation, so we come across deep anemia, early fatigue, etc. They apply with complaints.
Although fibroids that reach large sizes cause abdominal swelling, pain, indigestion, constipation, gas complaints, they cause frequent urination and kidney problems by pressing the bladder.
Rarely, stalked myomas in the cavity may go outside the uterine cavity and cause post-intercourse bleeding, bad odor and discharge due to infection.
They can be diagnosed very easily with pelvic examination and ultrasound. Three-dimensional USG, MRI and tomography can also be used in the diagnosis and treatment phase.
How Is Myoma Treated?
It is generally benign and a transformation to malignant tumor is observed at a rate of 0.1-0.5%, sudden growth, myomas with suspicious appearance should be treated and patients with fibroids should be checked regularly.
The treatment varies according to the age of the patient, the presence and severity of the symptoms, the size of the myoma and the location, and observational, medical and surgical treatment (open, hysteroscopic, laparoscopic) options are applied.