Hemorrhoids are enlarged veins at the bottom of the rectum and anus, at the end of the anal canal. The walls of these blood vessels are sometimes stretched so wide that the vessels swell further and become irritated.
As a result of this swelling and irritation, they go out of the anus. This condition is also known as hemorrhoids or mayasıl. Hemorrhoids are divided into internal and external hemorrhoids and are measured in four different degrees according to their symptoms.
What are Internal Hemorrhoids?
Internal hemorrhoids are usually in a deep part of the anus that cannot be seen or felt. They usually do not cause pain or pain due to the small number of nerves that perceive pain in their area.
Blood seen in stool, toilet bowl or toilet paper is the most obvious sign. Apart from this, it is possible to see hemorrhoids as moist lumps with a pinker color than the other tissue around.
These are called prolapse hemorrhoids. These hemorrhoids can go back on their own, or they can be gently pressed in.
What are External Hemorrhoids?
External hemorrhoids are just under the skin on the outer wall of the anus. Since there is more pain-sensing nerve here, pain, bleeding, itching and swelling are among the external hemorrhoid symptoms.
What is Hemorrhoids Thrombosis?
In some cases of hemorrhoids, the hemorrhoids may turn purple or blue due to a blood clot. This is called thrombosis. This condition can cause pain, itching, and bleeding. When the clot dissolves, a piece of skin may remain and this part may become irritated.
What Causes Hemorrhoids?
If the family members have had hemorrhoids in the past, the possibility of hemorrhoids increases. In addition, excessive pressure in the lower rectum area can affect blood flow and inflate the vessels there.
In this situation, when you have difficulty in toileting, trying to lift or push a heavy object, if the body carries extra weight due to obesity, if the growing fetus presses the uterus vessels during pregnancy, if you follow a low fiber diet, if you live a life without exercise, or if you have sexual intercourse through the anus. It can occur when having intercourse.
People who stand or sit without changing position for very long periods of time are also at risk. Again, diarrhea or constipation that does not go away for a long time increases the risk factors of hemorrhoids. Coughing, sneezing, or vomiting can worsen existing hemorrhoids.
What are the Symptoms of Hemorrhoids?
- The most important complaint in grade hemorrhoids is bleeding. Hemorrhoids are determined during the rectoscopy performed for diagnosis.
- Grade hemorrhoids complain of itching as well as bleeding. These are determined during anal examination and during straining.
- Grade hemorrhoids have bleeding and itching as well as anal discharge or a feeling of wetness. It is determined by the hemorrhoid packs protruding outside the anus during anal examination. These can be sent inside during the examination.
- Grade hemorrhoids have pain, as well as discharge, bleeding, and itching. With this degree of examination, swelling that cannot be sent inside is detected.
A doctor should be consulted in any case of rectal bleeding, even if it is not caused by hemorrhoids. Rectal bleeding is also a symptom of Crohn's disease, diverticulitis, colitis, colon polyps, or colorectal cancer.
Anal fissures can also cause pain or bleeding. It is absolutely necessary to consult a healthcare professional for the most accurate diagnosis and treatment.
How Is Hemorrhoids Diagnosed?
Your doctor will ask a variety of questions about medical history and symptoms, then perform one or all of the several exams available, depending on the case.
The first is a physical exam where the doctor looks into the anus and rectum to check for lumps, swelling, irritation, or other problems.
In the second examination method, after wearing a hygienic glove, the doctor examines the muscle tone and controls the rectum with a finger to feel sensitivity, swelling, lumps, irritation and similar problems. This is called the digital rectal examination method.
More sophisticated examination methods may be required to diagnose internal hemorrhoids and check for other possible medical problems.
For this purpose, the examination performed with tools called rectoscope or proctoscope is called rectoscopy or proctoscopy.
Anoscopy using a short plastic tube called anoscope to examine the anal canal, sigmoidoscopy performed with a flexible and lighted tube called sigmoidoscope that helps to examine the lower colon area, and colonoscopy using a long and flexible colonoscope used to control the entire large intestine are among the examination methods used. .
How Is Hemorrhoid Treatment?
In particular, the uncomfortable symptoms of external hemorrhoids usually disappear on their own. An appropriate treatment plan will be determined by the doctor based on how severe the symptoms are.
Lifestyle changes, medical medications, and surgical interventions are among the methods used in hemorrhoid treatments. Although these methods can easily treat hemorrhoids, if the conditions that cause hemorrhoids are not changed, the possibility of hemorrhoids recurrence increases.
Simple lifestyle changes can usually resolve mild hemorrhoid symptoms within 2 to 7 days. Fiber consumption will facilitate the passage of food through the intestines.
For this, fiber can be added to the diet by giving weight to fruits, vegetables and grains during nutrition. Consuming more water can again help reduce symptoms.
Baths with warm water will also be good for hemorrhoid symptoms. Massaging problem areas with ice is an effective method to relieve pain and itching.
Various herbal creams and ointments can be used to treat hemorrhoids after being checked by a doctor.
For the treatment of hemorrhoids, if any, the underlying problems such as constipation or diarrhea are eliminated, and bowel functions are regulated. If the symptoms do not improve spontaneously, drug therapy is used. During drug treatment, different drug forms are used in the form of pills, suppositories, cream, pomade and wipes.
Surgical treatment methods are used in low-grade hemorrhoids resistant to drug therapy, high-grade hemorrhoids, hemorrhoids causing complications such as urgency and thrombosis.
Surgical treatment methods include band ligation, sclerotherapy, hemorrhoidectomy with classical surgical methods, or laser operation.
Classic surgery will require a hospital stay for at least one day. Laser operations require shorter medical care.
How to Prevent Hemorrhoids?
Lifestyle modification methods used during hemorrhoid treatment also help prevent hemorrhoids.
It is important to prioritize fiber foods that facilitate the passage of food through the digestive system. For this, vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts, dried nuts, whole wheat, chickpeas, beans and legumes can be used. Drinking more water prevents constipation and reduces the risk of straining bowel movements.
Fibrous fruits and vegetables also have water to help in this situation. Physical activities such as walking for half an hour every day will both increase the mobility of the body and reduce the risk of hemorrhoids as it will help maintain a healthy weight.
It is important not to delay to visit the toilet when needed, not to wait. Sitting in the toilet for a long time is an act that increases the risk of hemorrhoids and should be avoided.
What should be avoided after hemorrhoid surgery?
It is natural to experience some pain and bleeding in the early period after hemorrhoid surgery. This is part of the healing process of the surgery. However, in order to prevent hemorrhoids from recurring in the long run, it is necessary to avoid situations such as constipation and excess weight that cause the condition.