Elon Musk FRS (Born Elon Reeve Musk, June 28, 1971) is an engineer, industrial designer, technology entrepreneur, and philanthropist. His country of birth is a citizen of Canada and the United States, except South Africa. Today, Musk still lives in the United States, where he immigrated at the age of 20. Musk is also the founder, CEO, and chief of engineering and design offices of SpaceX; early investor, CEO of Tesla, Inc. and product architect; Founder of The He Boring Company; Co-founder of Neuralink; He is the founding partner and first co-chair of OpenAI. Elected Fellow of the 2018 Royal Society (FRS). It was ranked 2016th in the "World's Most Powerful People" list published by Forbes in December 25, and first in the "World's Most Innovative People" list published by Forbes in 2019. His colorful personality caught the attention of filmmaker Jon Favreau, and he had the opportunity to star for a short time in Iron Man 2010, which was released in 2. In addition, he coordinated an interview with Jon Favreau gathering Elon Musk and Robert Downey Jr.
Musk was born and raised in Pretoria, South Africa, to a Canadian mother and a South African white father. He briefly attended the University of Pretoria before moving to Canada to attend Queen's University. Two years later he transferred to the University of Pennsylvania where he received a BA and B.Sc. in economics from the Wharton School and BA and B.Sc. in physics. received their degrees. He moved to California in 1995 to begin his doctorate, and earned a master's degree in applied physics and materials science at Stanford University, but decided to pursue a business career rather than pursuing an academic career. He founded Zip1999 (along with his brother Kimbal Musk), a web software company that was bought by Compaq for $ 340 million in 2. Musk later founded X.com, an online bank. In 2000, it merged with Confinity, which founded PayPal the previous year and sold it to eBay for $ 2002 billion in October 1,5.
In May 2002, Musk founded SpaceX, an aerospace technology manufacturer and a space transportation services company, where he is currently CEO and chief of engineering and design offices. Joined electric vehicle manufacturer Tesla Motors, Inc. (present-day Tesla, Inc.) in 2004, a year after its founding, and became a product architect; He became CEO of the company in 2008. In 2006, he helped found SolarCity, a solar services company (a subsidiary of today's Tesla). In 2015, Musk founded OpenAI, a non-profit research company that aims to promote artificial intelligence, which he sees as friendly. In July 2016, he founded Neuralink, a neurotechnology company focused on developing brain-computer interfaces. In December 2016, Musk founded The Boring Company, an 'infrastructure and tunnel construction' company focused on optimized roads for electric vehicles. In addition to his primary job quests, Musk also designed a high-speed transportation system called Hyperloop.
Musk has also been the subject of criticism for taking unconventional stances and causing widely publicized scandals. In the 2018 Tham Luang rescue operation, when submarine was not considered a viable option and was rejected, Musk called the leader of the diving team "pedo-man". The leader of the diver team sued Musk for libel, but California Legal Jury ruled in Musk's favor. Also in 2018, Musk tweeted that he raised $ 420 per share for Tesla's private acquisition, referring to Joe Rogan's podcast when he was drinking cannabis. The US Securities and Exchange Commission sued him for comment; Musk temporarily withdrew from the chair and agreed with the SEC, accepting restrictions on Twitter use. Musk also garnered critical criticism for his views on artificial intelligence, public transport, and the COVID-19 pandemic.
Musk was born on June 28, 1971 in Pretoria, South Africa as Elon Reeve Musk. His mother, Maye Musk (née Haldeman), is a model and dietician born in Saskatchewan, Canada but raised in South Africa. His father, Errol Musk, is an electromechanical engineer, pilot, sailor, consultant and real estate developer born in South Africa. The CEO of the video streaming site Passionflix has a brother named Kimbal (born 1972) and a sister named Tosca (born 1974). Her maternal grandfather, Dr. Joshua Haldeman was a Canadian born in the United States. His paternal grandmother had pedigrees dating both to English and Pennsylvania Dutch.
After his parents divorced in 1980, Musk began to live with his father in the Pretoria suburbs. Two years after his parents' separation, Musk regretted choosing to stay with his father rather than immigrating to Canada with his mother; in the future "A terrible person… he did almost every bad thing you can think of!" In time, he started to move away from his father, which he would say. Also, Musk has a half-sister and a half-brother from her paternal side.
Elon learned to program and code software by himself. When he was 12 years old, he sold his own space game called Blastar for about $ 500 and made his first software sale. After passing the eighth and ninth grades at Bryanston High School, Musk moved to Pretoria Boys High School and graduated from there. In 1988, at the age of 17, he left home to avoid military service in the South African army: "I have no problem with serving in the military, but serving in the South African army and trying to suppress black people didn't seem like a good way to spend time." He wanted to move to the US and said, "It's where great things are possible."
In 1992, he left Canada to study business and physics at the University of Pennsylvania after spending two years at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. He chose his major at The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and received a bachelor's degree in Economics. He also received a minor in Physics from the University of Pennsylvania, School of Arts and Sciences. He then moved to California's Silicon Valley region to pursue a PhD in Applied Physics and Materials Science. However, he did not complete his doctorate.
With his undergraduate education and inspiration from innovators such as Thomas Edison, Nikola Tesla, Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Walt Disney, Musk identified three areas in which he wanted to enter "the problems that will affect the future of humanity the most." These areas were the internet, clean energy and space. "
Musk began his PhD in applied physics and materials science at Stanford in 1995. However, he dropped out two days later to start the Zip2 project, an online content publishing software for new organizations, with his brother Kimbal Musk. In 1999, Compaq's AltaVista unit purchased Zip2 for $ 307 million in cash and $ 34 million in stock.
Musk founded his third company Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) in June 2002. He is currently the CEO and CTO of this company. SpaceX is a company that develops and manufactures launch vehicles focused on advancing the state of rocket technology. The company's first two launch vehicles are the Falcon 1 and Falcon 9 rockets; The first spacecraft is Dragon.
SpaceX was awarded a $ 2011 billion NASA deal on December 9, 12 for the Falcon 23 rocket that replaced the Space Shuttle, which was discontinued in 2008, and 1,6 flights of Dragon to the International Space Station. It was originally thought that the Falcon 9 / Dragon would take over the cargo handling function and the astronaut transport would be handled by Soyuz. But SpaceX had designed the Falcon 9 / Dragon for astronaut transport, and the Augustine commission suggested that astronaut transport be handled by commercial companies such as SpaceX.
According to Musk, the exploration of space is an important step in expanding, if not protecting, the consciousness of humanity. In his words, multi-planetary life can be a precaution against what threatens the survival of the human race. “An asteroid or a large volcano can destroy us, and we are faced with risks that dinosaurs have never seen: an engineered virus, an accidentally created micro black hole, global warming, or a technology that has not yet been found to bring our demise. The human race has evolved for millions of years, but in the last 60 years atomic weapons have created a potential to exhaust ourselves. Sooner or later we will have to expand life beyond the blue-green ball, or we will become extinct. ” Musk's goal is to reduce the cost of manned spaceflight to one-tenth. He founded SpaceX with a $ 100 million fortune he previously owned. He is still the CEO and CTO of the California-based company.
Within seven years, SpaceX designed the Falcon family of launch vehicles and the Dragon multipurpose spacecraft from scratch. In September 2009, SpaceX's Falcon 1 rocket became the first liquid-fueled launch vehicle funded by a private company to place satellites in Earth orbit. NASA chose SpaceX to be part of its first program to deploy private companies to deliver cargo to the International Space Station. With a minimum value of $ 1,6 billion and a maximum value of $ 3,1 billion, this agreement became a cornerstone of the Space Station's ongoing access to shipping and receiving cargo. In addition to these services, SpaceX's goals include creating the first fully reusable orbital launch vehicle while simultaneously reducing the cost of orbital spaceflight ten times and increasing reliability ten times. In the coming years, Musk will concentrate on sending astronauts to the International Space Station, but stated that his ultimate goal is to enable the exploration and settlement of Mars. In an interview in 2011, he said he hoped to send people to Mars in 10-20 years. On May 25, 2012, SpaceX's Dragon vehicle entered the COTS Demo Flight International Space Station, making it the first commercial company to ship and dock a vehicle to the SpaceX International Space Station.
Musk is co-founder and head of product design at Tesla Motors. Musk's interest in electric vehicles predates Tesla's appearance.
Musk started by hiring Martin Eberhard as CEO and invested nearly all of the capital in Tesla's first two investment rounds. After the forced layoffs at Tesla in the economic crisis of 2008, Musk also took on the role of CEO.
Tesla Motors first produced the Tesla Roadster, an electric sports car, and has sold approximately 31 units in 2500 countries. Tesla delivered its first four-door sedan, the Model S, on June 22, 2012, and announced its third product, the Model X, aimed at the SUV/minivan market, on February 9, 2012. Production of the Model X is scheduled to begin in 2014. In addition to its own vehicles, Tesla provides Daimler for Smart EV and Mercedes A-Class; and Toyota sells electric motors and powertrains for its future RAV4. In addition, Musk considers these two companies as long-term investors in Tesla. kazanmanaged to climb.
In particular, Musk is responsible for its strategy of providing affordable electric vehicles to mass-market customers. His vision is money with the Tesla Roadster, aimed primarily at more affluent customers. kazanIP was then to invest that money in the R&D of lower-priced electric vehicles. Since Tesla's inception, Musk has been a supporter of the four-door family car Model S, whose base price is half that of the Roadster. Musk also favors making $30.000 small vehicles and making and selling power generation and transmission systems to other manufacturers. Thus, other manufacturers will be able to produce affordable electric vehicles without having to develop these products themselves. Many mainstream media have compared Musk to Henry Ford for his revolutionary work on advanced power generation and transmission systems.
According to reports, Musk has a 32% stake in Tesla and the value of these shares as of May 29, 2013 is $ 12 billion.
To overcome the long-range restriction in the electric vehicle market, Musk said in an interview with All Things D in May 2013 that Tesla significantly accelerated the expansion of its charging station network, tripled the number of stations on the East and West sides in June, and in North America and Canada during the year. he said he was planning further enlargement.
Musk gave the concept to SolarCity, where he is the largest shareholder and chairman of the board. SolarCity is the largest solar power system provider in the United States. His cousin, Lyndon Rive is also the company's CEO and co-founder. The motivation to invest in both Tesla and SolarCity is to fight global warming. In 2012, Musk announced that SolarCity and Tesla Motors had collaborated to use electric vehicle batteries to soften the impact of rooftop solar panels on the electricity grid.
Elon's sister Tosca Musk is a director. He is the founder of Musk Entertainment and has produced various movies. While Musk met his first wife, Canadian writer Justine Wilson, they were both students at Queen's University of Ontario. They married in 2000 and separated in 2008. Their first son, Nevada Alexander Musk, died at 10 weeks of age from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). He later had five sons through in vitro fertilization - twins in 2004, then triplets in 2006. They shared custody of all five sons.
In 2008, Musk started dating British actress Talulah Riley, and in 2010 the couple got married. In January 2012, Musk announced that he had ended his four-year relationship with Riley. In July 2013, Musk and Riley remarried. In December 2014, Musk filed for a second divorce from Riley; however, the action was withdrawn. The media announced in March 2016 that the divorce proceedings had restarted, this time filing for divorce against Riley Musk. The divorce case was concluded in late 2016.
Musk began dating American actress Amber Heard in 2016, but the two broke up a year later.
On May 7, 2018, Musk and Canadian musician Grimes announced that they started dating. On January 8, 2020, Grimes announced that she was pregnant with her first child. Grimes announced that he gave birth on May 4, 2020.   Musk claimed he named his children "X Æ A-12".
The Musk Foundation (tr: Musk Foundation), headed by Musk, focuses on charity work on science education, child health and clean energy. Musk is also a trustee of the X Prize Foundation, which promotes renewable energy. Other non-profit organizations are Space Foundation (tr: Space Foundation), National Academies Aeronautics and Space Engineering (tr: national Aerospace Engineering Academies), Planetary Society (tr: Planets Association), and Stanford Engineering Advisory Board (tr: Stanford Engineering Consulting Commission) is also a member of the board of directors. In addition, Musk is a member of the board of trustees of the California Institute of Technology (tr: California Institute of Technology).
In 2010, it launched a multi-million dollar program to donate solar energy systems to meet critical needs in disaster areas through its own foundation. The first such solar power system donation was made to the hurricane response center in Alabama, which was ignored by state and federal aid. To make it clear that this work has nothing to do with Musk's commercial purposes, SolarCity has announced that it has no plans for the present or future for the Alabama area.
In 2001, Musk had plans to build a small greenhouse and grow plants on Mars called the "Mars Oasis". However, he suspended his project when he concluded that the problem preventing humanity from traveling through space was due to the underdevelopment of rocket technology. He founded SpaceX to address this issue and make revolutionary interplanetary rockets.
Musk's long-term goal is to help humanity by creating a civilization that travels through space through SpaceX. Musk's philosophy and definition of what is needed to solve the problem are given in the IEEE publication "Elon Musk: a founder of Paypal, Tesla Motors, and SpaceX" and the article "Risky Business".
Musk joined The Giving Pledge in April 2012 and pledged to donate most of his fortune to charity. Musk first joined the campaign, which became famous thanks to Warren Buffett and Bill Gates, with a 12-member group of America's richest families and individuals, including Arthur Blank and Michael Moritz.
Musk was supporting The Oatmeal's Matthew Inman effort to preserve Nikola Tesla's laboratory in Long Island, New York and turn it into a museum, according to the car blog Jalopnik's report dated August 16, 2012.
Musk was a supporter of the United States Political Action Committee (PAC) FWD.us, which was started by another high-profile entrepreneur, Mark Zuckerberg, and supporters of immigration reform. But in May 2013, he publicly withdrew his support to protest the PAC's ads promoting an issue like the Keystone Pipeline. Legislators' tolerance for the primary purposes of the PACs. kazanIt is customary for them to support issues at both ends of the political spectrum in order to Musk and some other key members of the group, such as David Sacks, have withdrawn from the organization, calling the group's strategy a "contemptuous act".