What is Cataract? Cataract Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

What is cataracts causes, symptoms and treatment of cataracts
What is cataracts causes, symptoms and treatment of cataracts

The eye is the sensory organ that is most rapidly affected by the aging process. The sense of vision can be affected by age, as well as by some physical and natural changes. As a result, the pupil, which is called the pupil and allows the light to fall on the retina, shrinks. Adaptation to light slows down and vision difficulties are seen in dim light. As a result of the loss of flexibility of the lens, the problem of farsightedness begins. What happens if cataracts are not treated? How is cataract surgery performed? What are the symptoms of cataracts in the eye? Does cataract surgery blind you? all in the details of our news ..

Keratoconjunctivitis, which is known as KKS, or dry eyes may occur. Tear volume and function decrease in dry eyes and the person complains of blurred vision, redness and burning. Again, another eye problem that develops depending on age is cataracts. In cataracts, the adaptability of the lens whose weight and thickness changes as it ages, decreases. New fiber layers form around the lens. This compresses the lens core and hardens it. In this process where lens core proteins are chemically altered, brown and yellow discolorations occur on the lens. Cataract is the most common cause of aging-related visual impairment in society. It is the most common disease that causes blindness in the world and the only treatment is to remove the cloudy lens with an operation and replace it with an artificial lens.

What is Cataract?

Katarakt it is a disease frequently classified by age. Congenital cataract is called congenital cataract, and the type that occurs with age is called senile cataract. It is a disease that occurs with the formation of blurry parts on the lens, which is inside the eye, which does not contain nerves and veins, loss of transparency, brown and yellow discoloration, resulting in decreased sense of vision. Although cataracts can appear in both or only one of the eyes, often one eye is more affected than the other. The lens, which is transparent under normal conditions, transmits light to the back of the eye, allowing the sense of vision to work clearly. However, if a part of the lens becomes cloudy, light cannot penetrate sufficiently and vision is affected. In untreated cases, the blurred areas expand and increase in number. As the turbidity increases, the vision is affected more and makes the person unable to do his daily work.

Cataract, which develops depending on age at a rate of 90%, may occur in newborns as a result of systemic diseases, some eye diseases, medication use or traumas or congenitally. Congenital cataract should be operated quickly if the baby's pupil is completely covered. Since the physical development of the eye is not fully completed in babies under the age of 3, lens implantation is not performed during the operation. Although it is known that 50% of the senile cataract developing due to aging is genetically inherited, the gene that causes this condition has not been identified yet. Therefore, it is important for individuals aged 40 and over to have a detailed eye examination at intervals of 2 to 4 years. 55 to 1 years after the age of 3; After the age of 65, it is recommended to be examined by a specialist physician every 1 to 2 years.

What are the Symptoms of Cataract?

Symptoms usually occur with advancing age. It may not show symptoms during the initial period. The clouding of the eye lens increases day by day and this situation is noticed by other people. Common symptoms include unclear vision, clouding, smoky and hazy vision. In some cases, spots may appear in areas where vision is not clear; In cases of excess or insufficient light, vision may deteriorate more. Cataracts can cause colors to be paler and less sharp. It becomes difficult to read newspapers and books, watch television and drive. It may rarely be double vision, or it can still be seen around strong light sources such as street lights or headlights in the dark. Some other symptoms are as follows:

  • Inability to see far and near
  • Light complaint and glare
  • Impaired vision on sunny days
  • Blurred vision
  • Difficult and faded perception of colors
  • Eye strain and headache
  • Frequent changes in the number of glasses
  • Reduced need for glasses
  • Better seeing close to without glasses
  • Decreased night vision
  • Loss of sense of depth

Cataract Causes

Chemical changes and proteolytic decomposition occur in the crystalline proteins that form the lens behind the colored part of the eye called the iris. As a result, high molecular weight protein clusters are formed and foggy, stained, blurred vision occurs. These clumps increase over time, creating a curtain that prevents light from entering the lens inside the eye and decreases eye transparency. It creates additions in the eye. These clusters prevent the scattering of light, preventing the image from falling on the retina. However, the presence of a history of cataracts in the family can also be caused by many conditions such as different health problems and diseases, genetic disorders, previous eye surgeries, exposure to sunlight for a long time, diabetes, long-term use of steroid drugs, eye trauma and uveitis-like eye diseases.

Cataract Treatment

After the history heard by the specialist physician, an eye examination is performed with an ophthalmoscope. Ophthalmoscope is a device that enables the physician to see the eye in detail with an intense light. In this way, it is understood how much the eye lens is affected. In some cases, even if the patient has no complaints, cataracts can be noticed with this method during a routine eye examination. The presence of cataract is detected with this method and the patient is informed about the treatment process. Cataracts cannot be prevented or cured by diet or medication. Surgery is the only option. The indication for surgery is placed depending on the patient's visual level and complaints. However, in the first stages of cataracts, the use of glasses and complaints during daily work can be temporarily relieved. However, surgery is the only option in advanced cataract cases.

Cataract Surgery

Cataract surgery is performed easily and quickly with the developing technology. The eye area is often anesthetized with local anesthesia. 2 to 3 mm. Such a small tunnel incision is created and the lens, which becomes cloudy with phacoemulsification technique, is broken up by ultrasonic vibrations and removed. Then, a high quality artificial monofocal or multifocal lens is placed in the eye to improve vision. Since the lens worn in cataract operation removes other visual defects, patients can see far and near without glasses. The operation takes about half an hour, and then it is recommended to use eye drops for 3 to 4 weeks. There is no need for hospitalization after cataract surgery. If cataracts are present in both eyes, operations are performed at the intervals recommended by the physician; Both eyes are not treated at the same time. Although there are some restrictions after the operation, patients can use their eyes from the first day.

How to Prevent Cataracts?

The lens behind the iris focuses the light that enters the eye, allowing you to see sharply and clearly. With the advancement of age, the lens inside the eye becomes thicker and loses its flexibility. With the loss of flexibility, near and far focusing problems are seen. As a result of deterioration of the tissues in the lens, and protein accumulation, stains occur on the lens, which prevents the scattering of light. Thus, the image cannot reach the retina and the sense of vision is impaired and even problems such as not being able to see completely may occur. It is not possible to completely prevent cataract formation. However, the risks of getting the disease can be reduced by:

  • Protecting the eyes from sunlight and not looking directly at the sun
  • Quitting smoking
  • Healthy and balanced diet
  • Keeping diabetes under control

For a healthy life, do not neglect to have your controls regularly.

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