The Trans-Siberian Railway is the railway connecting Western Russia with Siberia to Far East Russia, Mongolia, China and the Sea of Japan. It is the longest railway in the world with a length of 9288 km from Moscow to Vladivostok.
It was built between 1891 and 1916. The amount spent on the construction of the railway between 1891 and 1913 amounted to 1.455.413.000 rubles.
- Moscow (0 km, Moscow Time) Most trains start from the Yaroslavski railway station.
- Vladimir (210 km, Moscow Time)
- Gorki (461 km, Moscow Time)
- Kirov (917 km, Moscow Clock)
- Perm (1397 km, Moscow Clock + 2)
- The imaginary border crossing between Europe and Asia. It is marked with an obelisk. (1777 km, Moscow Clock + 2)
- Yekaterinburg (1778 km, Moscow Time + 2)
- Tyumen (2104 km, Moscow Clock + 2)
- Omsk (2676 km, Moscow Clock + 3)
- Novosibirsk (3303 km, Moscow Time + 3)
- Krasnoyarsk (4065 km, Moscow Time + 4)
- Irkutsk (5153 km, Moscow Clock + 4)
- Sljudyanka 1 (5279 km, Moscow Clock + 5)
- Ulan Ude (5609 km, Moscow Time + 5)
- Trans is the point of intersection with Mongolia line. (5655 km,)
- Cheetah (6166 km, Moscow Clock + 6)
- It is the intersection point with the Trans Manchuria line. (6312 km,)
- Birobidyan (8320 km, Moscow Clock + 7)
- Khabarovsk (8493 km, Moscow Clock + 7)
- It is the intersection point with the Trans Korea line. (9200 km,)
- Vladivostok (9289 km, Moscow Clock + 7)
The craving for a port on Russia's long-standing Pacific coast was realized in 1880 with the establishment of the city of Vladivostok. Establishing the connection of this port with the capital and distributing the underground and aboveground resources of Siberia constitute the missing links of this longing. In 1891, Tsar III. With the approval of Aleksandr, the Minister of Transport, Sergei Witte, prepared the Trans Siberian railway plans and started the construction. In addition, it directed all the opportunities and investments of the state to the region for industrial development. After the death of the tsar 3 years later, his son, tsar II. Nikolai continued to invest and support the railway. Despite the enormous size of the project, the entire route was completely completed in 1905. On October 29, 1905, for the first time, passenger trains reached the Pacific Ocean (port of Vladivostok) from the Atlantic Ocean (Western Europe) without being transported by ferry on rails. Thus, the railway was raised just one year before the Russian - Japanese War. The railway was opened in 1916 with its current route, including the challenging route around Lake Baikal and the Manchurian line, with its dangerous location in the north replaced with its new route.
The Trans-Siberian Railway has formed an important trade and transportation line between Siberia and the rest of Russia. The transfer of Siberia's underground and surface resources, especially grain, has provided significant resources for the Russian economy.
However, the Trans-Siberian Railway has had a much wider and long-term impact. Undoubtedly, it will affect Russia's military power as well as its contribution to Russia's economy. In addition, a solidarity treaty was signed between Russia and France in 1894. Both countries have pledged to support each other in an attack by Germany or allies. The convergence of this treaty between the two countries, especially the French investments in Russia, is inevitable.
The Trans-Siberian Railway, as well as the Russian-French treaty, prompted Britain to worry about its interests in the Far East. Russia, which will develop a stronger army, appears to be inevitable in its policy of spreading China. Similar concerns exist in Japan. The expansion of Russia towards China will create a threatening area, including Manchuria, which is the most obvious aspect of Japan's external attack. In addition, the port of Viladivostok has become an important naval base for Russia.
Both sides' concerns have resulted in an agreement between Japan and the UK in 1902. The Treaty mainly aims to preserve the existing status quo in the Far East. According to the treaty, in the case of an external attack that threatens the position of one of the states, the other state will remain neutral. However, when another international power supports the offensive party, the other state will intervene.
20. This treaty, which took place at the very beginning of the 16th century, is a clear indication that the British Empire is maintaining its status quo worldwide, and now it needs to hear and feel alliances. It can also be seen as one of the first signs of the collapse of the British Empire.