Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706, Boston - April 17, 1790, Philadelphia) is an American publisher, author, inventor, philosopher, scientist, politician, and diplomat.
He was born as the tenth son of a soap and candle maker with seventeen children. He left school at the age of ten. When he was 12, he apprenticed with his older brother James, who ran the printing house and published a liberal newspaper. He learned the profession of printing and started his literary studies. He founded a printing house and newspaper in Philadelphia in 1730. Poor began publishing Richard's Almanac (The Almanac of Poor Richard). He wrote articles under the signature of Richard Sounders in Almanac, which he directed between 1732-1757. A club called Junto where topics such as politics, philosophy, science and business relations are discussed; established a library, a hospital and an insurance company against fire. It has increased printing houses.
Franklin founded America's first volunteer fire brigade companies in 1736. The same year, he became the Philadelphia parliamentary secretary. Franklin began to worry more and more about public affairs. He opened the 1743th Academy in 4 and was appointed president of the academy on 13 November 1749. Elected to the Pennsylvania parliament in 1750, he struggled with large families against the land tax. He was made general manager of British American mail. He made various arrangements in the postal service. Franklin, who conducted research on electrical phenomena in particular, discovered the positive and negative ends of electrical charges and introduced the principle of conservation of electric charge. At the end of his experiment by flying a kite in stormy weather, he discovered that lightning was an electrical phenomenon. He discovered the lightning rod based on this experiment in which two of his assistants died although he survived due to being affected by electricity, and started the clock application to benefit more from sunlight.
At the beginning of the North American Colonial Revolt in 1757, the inhabitants of the colonies sent Franklin to London with their complaints; In 1765, the stamp commissioned him to report objections against the official law to William Grenville. In 1772, he seized and published the letters of Massachusetts Governor Hutchinson, full of insults against the colonial people. His reputation with the colonial people increased. He was elected to the American Congress. In 1776 he drafted the declaration of independence with Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. In September 1776, the Congress sent a commission of three, including Franklin, to France to seek economic and military assistance. Franklin was very successful in meeting with the French foreign minister, Charles Gravier. At the end of the 1775-1783 American War of Independence, he went to England as one of the diplomats selected to continue peace negotiations with England. He returned to America in 1785 after the signing of the peace treaty with England. In 1787 he participated in the work of the Philadelphia Constitutional Assembly. He died after a while. As America's most influential Founding Fathers, Franklin saw money and honor for his colorful life, scientific and political achievements; warships; Many cities, districts, educational institutions, namesakes a name and companies, and up to two centuries after his death, numerous cultural references were named after him.
Benjamin Franklin was born in St. Johns Lodge, and was elected Grand Master to the Pennsylvania County Grand Lodge in June 1730, two years after he became Second Grand Lodge of the Pennsylvania Colony Grand Lodge in 1732. Between 1734-1735 he served as the Lodge Secretary.
The Philadelphia Presidency and Liberty Hall, built in 1734 and 1735, coincides with Benjamin Franklin's Grand Master's period. Benjamin Franklin initiated the construction of the Philadelphia Grand Lodge in 1752 and, three years later, with the completion of the building, in 1755 he organized the allotment ceremony of the Grand Lodge of Philadelphia, which is considered the first masonic building in America. For a while, Benjamin Franklin's son also served as the Grand Secretary. Known as one of the first to organize public library in the USA, Franklin was also the person to publish the first Masonic book in the USA.
Franklin was someone who could play the violin and guitar. He would play the glass harmonica he invented and many improved versions of it.
Franklin was a keen interest in chess. He was a very good chess player. Upon his playing chess, the American Colombian Magazine wrote that Franklin was the second person to know chess in the United States. It was revealed in 2 that Franklin was a popular chess player in the USA.
His inventions and scientific studies
Franklin had many inventions. These; It was lightning rod, glass harmonica, Franklin stove, bifocal glasses. As deputy postmaster, Franklin developed an interest in the North Atlantic Ocean. Franklin took an average merchant ship for postal business in 1768, and the packages had several weeks to arrive from the long England to New York. He was able to reach Newport, Rhode Island. In other words, he was able to deliver the packages.
In 1743, Franklin founded the American Philosophical Association to help men of science with their discoveries and theories and knowledge. He understood that for the rest of his life, along with his electrical research and other scientific research, politics and making money would occupy him. Franklin realized that the energies were divided into positive and negative. He also discovered that lightning consists of electricity. Franklin found a lightning bolt because of his experiments with electricity.
In 1786, the aging Franklin collected all his oceanographic findings in Maritime Observations, published in the journal Transactions of the Philosophy Society. The broadcast featured sea anchors, catamaran hulls, watertight compartments, ship deck lightning rods and soup bowl designs that would stand stable in stormy weather.
A letter written by Franklin in his own alphabet
In 1768, while in London, he invented a new alphabet to end the distinction between spelling and pronunciation of English. Franklin removed six letters (c, j, q, w, x, and y) from the English alphabet and added six new letters to the alphabet. He developed spelling rules suitable for the phonetics of English. The use of the Franklin alphabet was never official.
Franklin died on April 17, 1790, at the age of 84. It is said that about 20.000 people attended his funeral. Dr. Explained by John Jones:
“Whenever pain and shortness of breath started and an imposthume in his lungs, he suddenly lost all hope and pride. Yet he had quite a bit of power; but his respiratory organs could not withstand the pressure he faced slowly. Slowly one night on April 17, 1790, Franklin's life of eighty-four years and three months came to an end. ”
Franklin inherited thousands of pounds in the cities of Boston and Philadelphia. However, he stipulated that this money should not be touched in any way and kept in interest for 200 years after his death. In the 1990s, the money left for Boston and Philadelphia reached millions of dollars.
“The Princess and the Patriot: Ekaterina Dashkova, Benjamin Franklin and the Age of Enlightenment” exhibition started in February 2006 and ended in December 2006. Benjamin Franklin and Yekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova met only once, in Paris in 1781. Franklin was 75 years old and Daskova was 37. Franklin and the only woman invited Daskova to become the first woman to join the American Philosophical Society. Subsequently, he made Daşkova the first member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.