Nowadays, when the Coronavirus epidemic is not slowing down, the possibility that the flu and pneumonia cases will be added to the Coronavirus cases with the approach of autumn scares experts.
Emphasizing that vaccination should be done in order not to add influenza and pneumonia epidemics to the COVID-19 epidemic that shook the whole world, scientists especially draw attention to the pneumonia vaccine. So who should get the pneumonia vaccine? Does this vaccine also protect from Coronavirus?
Anadolu Medical Center Chest Diseases Specialist, who said that pneumonia and related diseases cause about 2 million deaths worldwide annually. Esra Sönmez answered questions about pneumonia and pneumonia vaccine ...
What is pneumonia?
Pneumonia or as it is known as "pneumonia"; It is defined as an infection of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses and rarely parasites. This infection in the lung occurs due to the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the alveoli, the small lung vesicles filled with air. The alveoli, which are filled with pollutant material, cannot fulfill their respiratory functions. Therefore, respiratory failure may develop in patients with severe pneumonia.
How is pneumonia transmitted?
The transmission of the disease to healthy people occurs through direct inhalation of droplets that are emitted into the air during cough, sneezing or speech of sick people. Crowded places, closed areas, schools where people live together, military and dormitories are places where pneumonia is more likely to be transmitted. There is a common belief among the public that pneumonia is caused by cold; however, pneumonia is also seen in the summer months. Since the cold weakens our immune system, even for a short time, and makes us vulnerable to infections, the possibility of getting pneumonia increases. However, without being exposed to an infectious agent, that is, virus or bacteria, pneumonia cannot be caused by just cold.
What are the risk factors?
Some factors such as advanced age, smoking, the presence of a chronic heart or lung disease, substance abuse, impaired consciousness and some neurological diseases with impaired cough reflex, foreign body aspiration, exposure to harmful gases can be listed as risk factors for pneumonia.
What are the symptoms of pneumonia?
In patients with typical pneumonia, the symptoms start noisy. The first symptoms are usually chills, fever that rises with chills, cough, inflamed sputum and flank pain triggered by breathing. If left untreated, the rapid course of pneumonia may cause respiratory failure in the first 48-72 hours. In atypical pneumonia, the symptoms start more subtle. After fever, weakness, headache, dry cough and / or light-colored sputum are observed. Wheezing and shortness of breath may develop in the process. It may be accompanied by weakness, muscle aches, severe headache, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
How is the diagnosis made?
Diagnosis is made by hearing pathological respiratory sounds, increased infection markers in the blood, and the appearance of pneumonic infiltration on chest X-ray in patients who apply to the physician with the above-mentioned complaints. Sputum culture, serological tests in blood / urine, nasal and nasal swab, and the culture of the sample taken from the airway of the intubated patient, the agent is tried to be identified and drug resistance determined.
What is done in the treatment?
When treating pneumonia, the patient's risk factors and factors indicating the severity of pneumonia are taken into consideration, and the decision of hospitalization or home treatment is made. Depending on the possible factor, treatment is started without waiting for reproduction in the culture. Antibiotics in bacterial pneumonia, antivirals in viral pneumonia and antifungals in fungal pneumonia form the basis of treatment. Starting appropriate treatment without delay saves lives.
Treatment should be supported by bed rest, antipyretic and pain relievers, cough suppressants, oxygen therapy if respiratory failure is developed, replacing the fluid lost by the body during the febrile process, and a high-calorie diet rich in vitamins.
What should be taken into account to prevent pneumonia?
The most important protection method for respiratory pneumonia caused by droplet scattering is to reduce close contact with the sick person and wear a mask. Measures such as a balanced, regular diet, not smoking, taking vitamins and minerals regularly have a protective effect in the emergence of the disease. People in the risk group are recommended to be vaccinated.
Who should get the pneumonia vaccine?
There is no need for healthy people between the ages of 2-65 to get the pneumonia vaccine. However, those in the risk group, namely children under 2 years of age and adults over 65 years of age, those with cardiovascular disease or chronic lung disease, diabetics, cirrhosis patients, patients with non-functioning spleen, chronic kidney failure, organ transplantation, lymphoma / multiple Myeloma patients, cancer patients, chemotherapy and / or radiotherapy patients, AIDS patients, those living in nursing homes should get pneumonia vaccine.
Will the pneumonia vaccine protect from Covid-19?
No, the pneumonia vaccine has no protection against COVID-19. Studies conducted to determine secondary bacterial infection factors developing during the course of COVID-19 infection show that the factors are hospital-derived bacteria. For this reason, vaccines against pneumococci, the most common cause of pneumonia acquired from the community, do not protect against bacterial infections that develop during the course of COVID-19 infection.
Are there any side effects of the pneumonia vaccine?
Since the pneumonia vaccine is a vaccine with an allergic reaction risk, it is recommended to be administered in health institutions. Vaccine-related local side effects include pain at the injection site, swelling of the injected limb, fever, pain at the injection site, redness, feeling warm, swelling and hardening. People with known allergies to any of the active ingredients or excipients of the vaccine are not vaccinated.
Hibya News Agency