John Wayne (born May 26, 1907 - June 11, 1979) is an American actor who won an Oscar for best actor and began his career in silent films in the 1920s. It is one of the leading stars between 1940 and 1970. Especially cowboy movies and II. Although he is famous for his World War II movies, he has appeared in a wide variety of genres, biographies, romantic comedies, police dramas and many other genres. He has become an enduring American icon, setting a harsh and individualistic example of masculinity. During the filming of The Alamo, Wayne smoked 5 packs of cigarettes a day. Early in his career, he learned a different way of walking in order to take on some roles.
Early life and university years
John Wayne was born as Marion Robert Morrison in Winterset, Iowa, in 1907. When his parents wanted to name their next son Robert, he was of his descent as' Marion Michael Morrison and was the son of an American Civil War veteran father. His mother, Mary Alberta Brown, was of Irish descent. Wayne's family moved to Glendale, California in 1911. Their neighbors here started calling John "Big Duke" because he wouldn't go anywhere without his dog, the Airedale Terrier, whose nickname was the little duke. John preferred the nickname "Duke" to "Marion" and carried that name to the end of his life.
Duke Morrison's childhood was in poverty because his father was someone who could not handle money well. Duke was a successful and popular student. He started at an early age and became one of the star American football players of Glendale High and upon his graduation he was accepted to the University of Southern California.
As a teenager, Wayne also worked in the ice cream shop of a man shouting horses at local Hollywood film studios. He has also been an active member of the Order of DeMolay, an organization of young masons run by a Masonic lodge, which he will join in the future.
Wayne's application to the American Naval Academy was not accepted. He then enrolled at the University of Southern California, where he was a member of the Trojan Knights and joined the Sigma Chi Brotherhood. Wayne also played on the university's American football team, coached by the legendary Howard Jones. His alleged accident while swimming on the beach put an end to his sports career, but Wayne later revealed that he was afraid of his coach's reaction if he found out the true cause of the accident. When he lost his sports scholarship, he could not attend school because he had no money.
While in college, he started working at local movie studios. Cowboy movie star Tom Mix got Wayne a summer job in the props department in exchange for a football ticket. He began taking small roles by establishing a long-lasting friendship with director John Ford. During this period, she appeared with her college teammates in the 1930 film Maker of Men, starring Richard Cromwell and Jack Holt.
After working as an extra for two years at William Fox Studios for $ 35 a week, he first appeared in the 1930 movie The Big Trail. When Raoul Walsh "discovered" Wayne, the film's director, named "John Wayne" as his stage name for the American War of Independence general "Crazy Anthony" Wayne. It has now been increased to $ 75 per week. He was trained by stunt performers in the studio and developed his riding and low-rise skills.
When it comes to John Wayne, there are two things that are indistinguishable first. John Wayne and John Ford. One of them was an excellent actor, the other a perfect director, a super duo, and they had a great breakout in the period. The combination of Wayne and Ford lasted very well, and great films came out. The name that makes John Wayne so good is the inevitable master of the Cowboy movies, John Ford.
The Big Trail, the first epic "cowboy" movie, became the actor's first on-screen reference, albeit a commercial failure. But nine years later, his performance in Stagecoach (1939) made Wayne a star. During the interim period, he made series of films, including mostly cowboy movies for Monogram Pictures, and The Three Musketeers (1933) set in North Africa for Mascot Studios: The same year (1933), Baby Face, the speculative success de scandale of Alfred E. He had a small role in the movie named.
Wayne, starting in 1928, for the following 35 years, including Stagecoach (1939), She Wore a Yellow Ribbon (1949), The Quiet Man (1952), The Searchers (1956), The Wings of Eagles (1957), and The Man. He has appeared in more than twenty John Ford films, including the films Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962).
Wayne was in the lead role in 142 of the movies he starred in, according to the Internet Movie Database site. One of John Wayne's most acclaimed roles was in The High and the Mighty (1954), directed by William Wellman, which was based on a book written by Ernest K. Gann. The portrait of a heroic aviator brought the actor to the appreciation of different circles. Island in the Sky (1953) is also linked to this film, and both were made one year apart by the same producers, director, writer, cinematographer, editor, and distributor.
In 1949, director of the film All the King's Men, Robert Rossen offered Wayne the lead role in the film. Wayne found the script un-American in many ways, rejecting the role with resentment. Taking his place, Broderick Crawford won the Best Actor Oscar in 1950 for which Wayne was also nominated for his role in The Sands of Iwo Jima.
In 1962, he co-starred with another famous cowboy and star actor James Stewart and Lee Van Clef in the John Ford movie The Man Who Shot The Liberty Valence. In this movie, he appears as one of the town's foremost powerful figures. He is not involved in business as much as before, and he does not want to make himself in a place far from the town and go into turmoil, but he will again show his strength to protect the town from the evil forces.
John Wayne received the Academy Award for Best Actor for his acting in the 1969 film True Grit. It was nominated for the same award as the film Sands of Iwo Jima. The Alamo, one of the two films he directed, was nominated for Best Picture. His other movie, The Green Berets (1968), is the only film made during the Vietnam War to support the conflict.
Today, The Searchers is regarded as Wayne's best and most complex acting film. In 2006, in an industry poll conducted by Premiere Magazine, the actor's portrayal of Ethan Edwards was voted the 87th best performance in film history.
Wayne was known for his conservative ideals. He helped found the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals and was president of the organization for a term. He was a fervent anti-communist, a supporter of HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee) and a supporter of blacklisting players accused of being sympathizers of communist ideals.
In a controversial 1971 interview with Wayne, Playboy magazine asked the actor what he thinks of the big steps blacks have made in equality in the United States. Wayne stated that white supremacy will continue until blacks take a more active role in American society by increasing their educational level.
Batjac production company, founded by Wayne, is named after the fictional transportation company in the movie The Wake of the Red Witch.
Period of illness
Wayne was diagnosed with lung cancer in 1964. In his surgery, all of his left lung and two ribs were removed. Despite rumors that the cancer was caught on the set of The Conqueror movie, shot in the state of Utah where the US government was conducting nuclear weapons experiments, Wayne believed that the cause was two packs of drinking a day.
Perhaps just because of his popularity or because he was the most famous republican star in Hollywood, the Republican Party demanded Wayne to run for president in 1968. Wayne turned down the offer because he didn't believe the public would want to see an actor at the White House. Still, he supported his friend Ronald Reagan's nominations for California governor in 1966 and 1970. The player was offered to run for the election in 1968, when conservative Democratic governor George Wallace was nominated, but that also did not happen.
John Wayne died of stomach cancer on June 11, 1979 and was buried in the Pacific View Memorial Park cemetery in Corona del Mar. For a short time after his death, rumors circulated on the deathbed of the Duke that he had converted to Catholicism. The story spread again in 2003 when his grandson took the priesthood and the death of his converted friend Bob Hope. However, Dave Grayson and his relatives, including the Duke's daughter Aissa, denied the rumors by explaining that the Duke was not himself when this alleged conversion took place.
This is hardly surprising, as the persistent anti-Catholicism from Wayne's youth caused constant tension in the Wayne family and was the alleged cause of his first marriage. Although Wayne was Mason, his family did not attend Mason's funeral.
Wayne has been married to Spanish women three times; Josephine Alicia Saenz, Esperanza Baur, and Pilar Palette. They had four children from Josephine and three children from Pilar. The best known are actress Patrick Wayne and Aissa Wayne, who wrote her memoirs as John Wayne's daughter.
Her love affair with Josie Saenz began during her college years and continued for seven years until she got married. He was about 15-16 years old when they met at a beach party in Saenz Balboa. The daughter of a successful Spanish businessman, Josie resisted considerable opposition to keep her relationship with the Duke. In the years before his death, Wayne was happily involved with his former secretary, Pat Stacy.
John Wayne passed away at his home in Newport Beach, California. The area where his home in Newport Harbor is located still attracts attention. After his death, his house was demolished and they built another house to replace his new owners.
John Wayne's name has been given to various structures. These include John Wayne Airport in Orange County, California, and the "John Wayne Pioneer Trail", which is more than 100 miles long in Iron Horse State Park in Washington state.
- Brown of Harvard (1926)
- Bardelys the Magnificent (1926)
- The Great K & A Train Robbery (1926)
- Annie Laurie (1927)
- The Drop Kick (1927)
- Mother Machree (1928)
- Four Sons (1928)
- Hangman's House (1928)
- Speakeasy (1929)
- The Black Watch (1929)
- Noah's Ark (1929)
- Words and Music (1929)
- Salute (1929)
- The Forward Pass (1929)
- Men Without Women (1930)
- Born Reckless (1930)
- Rough Romance (1930)
- Cheer Up and Smile (1930)
- The Big Trail (1930)
- Girls Demand Excitement (1931)
- Three Girls Lost (1931)
- Arizona (1931)
- The Deceiver (1931)
- Range Feud (1931)
- Maker of Men (1931)
- The Voice of Hollywood No. 13 (1932) (short subject)
- Running Hollywood (1932) (short subject)
- The Shadow of the Eagle (1932)
- Texas Cyclone (1932)
- Two-Fisted Law (1932)
- Lady and Gent (1932)
- The Hurricane Express (1932)
- The Hollywood Handicap (1932) (short subject)
- Ride Him, Cowboy (1932)
- That's My Boy (1932)
- The Big Stampede (1932)
- Haunted Gold (1932)
- The Telegraph Trail (1933)
- The Three Musketeers (1933)
- Central Airport (1933)
- Somewhere in Sonora (1933)
- His Private Secretary (1933)
- The Life of Jimmy Dolan (1933)
- Baby Face (1933)
- The Man From Monterey (1933)
- Riders of Destiny (1933)
- College Coach (1933)
- Sagebrush Trail (1933)
- The Lucky Texan (1934)
- West of the Divide (1934)
- Blue Steel (1934)
- The Lawless Frontier (1934)
- Helltown (1934)
- The Man from Utah (1934)
- Randy Rides Alone (1934)
- The Star Packer (1934)
- The Trail Beyond (1934)
- The Lawless Beyond (1934)
- 'Neath the Arizona Skies (1934)
- Texas Terror (1935)
- Rainbow Valley (1935)
- The Desert Trail (1935)
- The Dawn Rider (1935)
- Paradise Canyon (1935)
- Westward Ho (film) (1935)
- The New Frontier (1935)
- Lawless Range (1935)
- The Oregon Trail (1936)
- The Lawless Nineties (1936)
- King of the Pecos (1936)
- The Lonely Trail (1936)
- Winds of the Wasteland (1936)
- Sea Spoilers (1936)
- Conflict (1936)
- California Straight Ahead! (1937)
- I Cover the War (1937)
- Idol of the Crowds (1937)
- Adventure's End (1937)
- Born to the West (1937)
- Pals of the Saddle (1938)
- Overland Stage Raiders (1938)
- Santa Fe Stampede (1938)
- Red River Range (1938)
- Stagecoach (1939)
- The Night Riders (1939)
- Three Texas Steers (1939)
- Wyoming Outlaw (1939)
- New Frontier (1939)
- Allegheny Uprising (1939)
- Dark Command (1940)
- Meet the Stars: Cowboy Jubilee (1940) (short subject)
- Three Faces West (1940)
- The Long Voyage Home (1940)
- Seven Sinners (1940)
- A Man Betrayed (1941)
- Lady from Louisiana (1941)
- The Shepherd of the Hills (1941)
- Meet the Stars: Past and Present (1941) (short subject)
- Lady for a Night (1942)
- Reap the Wild Wind (1942)
- The Spoilers (1942)
- In Old California (1942)
- Flying Tigers (1942)
- Pittsburgh (1942)
- Reunion in France (1942)
- A Lady Takes a Chance (1943)
- In Old Oklahoma (1943)
- The Fighting Seabees (1944)
- Tall in the Saddle (1944)
- Flame of Barbary Coast (1945)
- Back to Bataan (1945)
- They Were Expendable (1945)
- Dakota (1945)
- Without Reservations (1946)
- Angel and the Badman (1947) (also producer)
- Tycoon (1947)
- Red River (1948)
- Fort Apache (1948)
- Three Godfathers (1948)
- Wake of the Red Witch (1948)
- The Fighting Kentuckian (1949) (also producer)
- She Wore a Yellow Ribbon (1949)
- Screen Snapshots: Hollywood Rodeo (1949) (short subject)
- Sands of Iwo Jima (1949)
- Rio Grande (1950)
- Screen Snapshots: Reno's Silver Spur Awards (1951) (short subject)
- Operation Pacific (1951)
- The Screen Director (1951) (short subject)
- Screen Snapshots: Hollywood Awards (1951) (short subject)
- Flying Leathernecks (1951)
- Miracle in Motion (1952) (short subject) (presenter)
- The Quiet Man (1952)
- Big Jim McLain (1952) (also producer)
- Trouble Along the Way (1953)
- Island in the Sky (1953) (also producer)
- Hondo (1953) (also producer)
- The High and the Mighty (1954) (also producer)
- The Sea Chase (1955)
- Screen Snapshots: The Great Al Jolson (1955) (short subject)
- Blood Alley (1955) (also director and producer)
- The Conqueror (1956)
- The Searchers (1956)
- The Wings of Eagles (1957)
- Jet Pilot (1957)
- Legend of the Lost (1957)
- I Married a Woman (1958) (short role)
- The Barbarian and the Geisha (1958)
- Rio Bravo (1959)
- The Horse Soldiers (1959)
- The Alamo (1960) (also director and producer)
- North to Alaska (1960)
- The Challenge of Ideas (1961) (short subject) (presenter)
- The Comancheros (1961) (also director)
- The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962)
- Oops! (1962)
- The Longest Day (1962)
- How the West Was Won (1962)
- McLintock! (1963)
- Donovan's Reef (1963)
- Circus World (1964)
- The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965)
- In Harm's Way (1965)
- The Sons of Katie Elder (1965)
- Cast a Giant Shadow (1966)
- El Dorado (1966)
- A Nation Builds Under Fire (1967) (short subject) (host)
- The War Wagon (1967)
- The Green Berets (1968) (also director)
- Hellfighters (1968)
- True Grit (1969)
- The Undefeated (1969)
- No Substitute for Victory (1970) (documentary)
- Chisum (1970)
- Rio Lobo (1970)
- Big Jake (1971) (assistant director)
- Directed by John Ford (1971) (documentary)
- The Cowboys (1972)
- Cancel My Reservation (1972) (descriptive short role)
- The Train Robbers (1973)
- Cahill US Marshall (1973)
- McQ (1974)
- Brannigan (1975)
- Rooster Cogburn (1975)
- Chesty: Tribute to a Legend (1976) (documentary) (narrator)
- The Shootist (1976)
Mel Brooks stars as Wayne in Blazing Saddles as Mr. Taggert was offered the role. “I can't act in this movie without Hobie Dampier Hutton, Wayne's best friend],” said John Wayne after reading the script. Another cowboy movie actor, Slim Pickens, got this role. It's enough to imagine what it would be like for Wayne to play what may be the most ridiculous impersonation in film history. The actor also agreed to star in Blankman, but died before filming began.