Istanbul Electric Tram and Tunnel Operations (IETT for short), an organization that provides public transportation services in Istanbul, affiliated to the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality.
In 1939, it gained its current status under the name of "Istanbul Electric Tram and Tunnel Enterprises General Directorate" with the law numbered 3645, which nationalized various companies. In 1945, Yedikule and Kurbağalıdere air gas factories and the Istanbul and Anatolian air gas distribution systems fed by these factories were transferred to IETT. Trolleybuses, which were commissioned in 1961, served Istanbulites until 1984. All electricity services by a law enacted in 1982, the rights and obligations of Turkey Electricity Authority (TEK) was transferred. Later in 1993, air gas production and distribution activities ceased. Providing only urban public transportation services today, IETT is responsible for the management, operation and supervision of private public buses and Istanbul Transportation Inc., as well as bus, tram and tunnel management. IETT also undertook the construction of some of the rail systems (metro and tram) in Istanbul (Eminönü-Kabataş, Sultançiftliği-Edirnekapı, Edirnekapı-Topkapı, Otogar-Başakşehir).
Istanbul urban transportation started in 1869 with the establishment of the Dersaadet Tram Company and the construction of the tunnel facility. In 1871, the company started transportation on four lines as a horse-drawn tram. These lines were Azapkapı-Galata, Aksaray-Yedikule, Aksaray-Topkapı and Eminönü-Aksaray and 4,5 million people moved in the first year. On these lines, 430 horses and 45 tram cars were traveling on rails with a line width of 1 meter. In 1912, the activity of the horse-drawn tram was interrupted for one year because all the horses were sent to the front during the Balkan War.
The tram network was electrified on February 2, 1914. On June 8, 1928, the tram started to work between Üsküdar and Kısıklı. By the 1950s, the length of the tram lines had reached 130 km. It lived its peak years in 1956 with 56, even 270 trains and 108 million passengers. After the 27 May Coup, tram service started to be closed. The roads were dismantled, and roads were built where motor vehicles that could move faster and faster in the conditions of that day could advance. The old trams continued to serve on the European side of the city until August 12, 1961 and on the Anatolian side until November 14, 1966.
Construction of the tunnel was also started at the same time as the tram. The construction of the funicular line between Pera and Galata began on 30 July 1871. The funicular was opened on December 5, 1874, after the London subway, as the second subway line in the world. Initially, passenger transport was also started on January 17, 1875, which was used only for the transportation of cargo and animals. This service is still ongoing.
In order to support tram transportation, which has been in operation since 1871, four Renault-Scémia brand buses were purchased from France in 1926 after the Dersaadet Tramway Company was given a license to operate buses. One of the buses operating under the Tram Company made its first flight on the Beyazıt-Taksim line on June 4, 2. Others started to work on Beyazıt-Fuatpaşa-Mercan Yokuşu-Sultanhamam-Old Post Office-Eminönü route five months later. This line was later extended to Karaköy. The first buses of Istanbul started to serve on the slopes where trams have difficulty getting out. The Bağlarbaşı warehouse, which was previously used as a tram hangar, was turned into a garage in 1927 for the maintenance and repair of buses.
The company had 3 buses during the nationalization and transfer to IETT. In 1942, 23 buses were ordered from American White Motor Company. The 9 buses, which will constitute the first batch of these buses, were sailed in pieces and chests on February 27, 1942. However, due to the intensification of the war materials were being brought to Turkey without the port of Alexandria. By 1943, the chests were brought to Istanbul under very difficult conditions, but some of the chests were found to be destroyed and some parts were missing. The assembly of the materials withdrawn from the customs began immediately, but only 9 White Motor Company buses were put into service due to the factory's stop in the United States. The remaining 14 were wasted before ever coming to Istanbul. Alternative lines to which they will work were opened and they entered the service. Since the first Renault received door numbers 1-4, they were given fleet numbers in double numbers between "6-22". In 1947, two buses were scrapped. After the Scania-Vabis joined the fleet with mass purchase, the remaining 2 were withdrawn from service at the end of 7.
At the end of the same year, 25 Scania-Vabis brand gasoline trucks were imported from Sweden by the Trade Office and allocated to IETT. In April 1943, a fleet of 15 was created with the purchase of 1944 busses from the truck and 5 Scania-Vabis buses in 29. This fleet was sent to Ankara on October 17, 1946, instead of buses burning in a fire in the bus depot of Ankara Municipality.
A fleet of 12 buses in total, consisting of 2 Twin Couch, 1 Chevrolet and 15 Fargo brands, was created with the initiative of the municipality. These buses served until 1955. Until 1960, bus purchases of various brands such as Skoda, Mercedes, Büssing and Magirus continued and the number of buses in the fleet increased to 525. This was followed by 1968 Leyland buses purchased from England in 1969 and 300. Bus purchases were made between Mercedes-Benz, Magirus and Ikarus in 1979-1980; He continued with MAN in 1983-1984. Ikarus Brand Buses were purchased from Hungary in 1990-1991-1992-1993-1994. Air-conditioned and low-floor buses with Euro III environmental engines were put into service. In the first months of 1993, new double-decker red buses started to operate.
In September 2007, Metrobus started to serve. In this line, buses with high passenger capacity, air conditioning, low floors and suitable for the transportation of disabled people are used.
IETT has 2014 buses as of the end of 3.059. These buses are solo, gusseted and metrobus type. The distribution of these buses by brands is as follows: 900 Otokar, 540 Karsan Bredamenarinibus, 1569 Mercedes-Benz and 50 Phileas. In addition, there are 3075 buses belonging to Private Public Buses under IETT control.
The first electricity distribution company in Turkey are brought to life in Istanbul. In 1908, II. During the modernization movements that developed with the declaration of the Constitutional Monarchy, the electricity distribution concession in Istanbul was given to Ganz Anonim Şirketi, whose headquarters is located in Pest. The building, which later turned into an Ottoman Anonymous Electric Company with other partners in 1910, started producing electricity especially for trams in the first world war and after, in Silahtar. Ankara government with the declaration of the Republic; The company recognizes the company by making additional agreements on the subject of being a Turkish citizen, investment obligation and service development. The Private Electricity Company was expropriated to 31 million 1937 thousand Liras on December 11, 500, and became the General Directorate of Electrical Affairs affiliated to the Ministry of Nafia and was responsible for electricity production and distribution.
Founded on June 16, 1939, IETT Operations General Directorate undertakes electricity generation and distribution. Having carried out production and distribution together until 1952, IETT starts to buy electricity from Etibank after this date. In 1970, the electricity distribution laws of Turkey Turkey Electricity Authority Electricity Authority (TEK) would be responsible. In 1982, the electricity distribution service was completely transferred to TEK.
Air gas production in Istanbul was first started in 1853 with the aim of lighting the Dolmabahçe Palace. The production and distribution business, which was carried out by private companies with foreign capital in Yedikule until 1878 and in Kadıköy in 1891, was transferred to IETT in 1945 with the transfer law numbered 4762, after a few changes were made.
With the transfer of Beyoğlu Polygon Air Gas Factory, whose concession was completed in 1984, IETT becomes a monopoly in the production and distribution of air gas. The company, which also produces coke production and sales, employs nearly a thousand people, has an average daily capacity of 300 thousand cubic meters, and has been serving Istanbul for 80 years with its 1993 thousand subscribers without saying summer and winter, it is liquidated in June XNUMX due to natural gas entering daily life and back technology. .
When the trams, which served Istanbul residents for many years on both sides, could not meet the needs of the city in the 1960s, it was decided to establish a trolleybus system, taking into account that it would be more economical than buses. The first line for trolleybuses powered by double overhead power lines is laid between Topkapı and Eminönü. The trolleybuses ordered to Italian Ansaldo San Giorgia in 1956-57, were put into service on 27 May 1961. Its total length is 45 km. The cost of the network, 6 power centers and 100 trolley buses is 70 million TL. The number of vehicles becomes 1968 when the vehicles, which are connected to Şişli and Topkapı garages and whose door numbers are listed from one to one hundred, were added to the production of IETT workers in 101 in 'Tosun'. Tosun provides service to Istanbul residents for sixteen years with its 101 door number.
Trolleybuses, which are often on the roads due to power cuts and disrupted expeditions, are removed from operation on July 16, 1984, on the grounds that they prevent traffic. The vehicles are sold to the ESHOT (Electricity, Water, Air gas, Bus and Trolleybus) General Directorate of the Izmir Municipality. Thus, the 23-year Istanbul adventure of trolleybuses ends.
IETT Bus Fleet
|Otokar||Kent 290 LF||898|
|Karsan||BM Avancity S (Bellows)||299|
|Karsan||BM Avancity + CNG||239|
The bus line that was put into service on September 17, 2007 was put on the D 100 highway. The total length of the line, which will consist of 7 stops, 38 on the Asian side and 45 on the European side, is 50 km. At the opening ceremony held on 8 September 2008, metrobus started to serve between Avcılar and Zincirlikuyu. Zincirlikuyu station is the last stop in Europe in the direction of Asia. There are 9 lines. Metrobus carries around 750.000 passengers a day.
Private public bus fleet
Since 1985, "Private Public Buses" operated by the private enterprise started to serve under the IETT control. Private Public Buses operating under the supervision of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Traffic Directorate were given to the management and supervision of the General Directorate of IETT Operations with the decision of the Transport Coordination Center (UKOME), which was taken in 1985 based on the proposal of the mayor. In this context, a directorate has been established to carry out the operations related to Private Public Buses. These studies are still carried out by the Special Transportation Directorate under the Transportation Planning Department.
As of the end of 2014, there are 3075 private line buses.
IETT and private public buses
|Private Public Buses||1283|
|Regional Public Buses||683|
|Touristic (Double Storey)||13|
|Sea - Airline Integrated||30|
|Istanbul Bus Station||922|
- Avcılar (Metrobus Garage)
- Anatolia [Kayışdağı]
- Edirnekapı (Metrobus Garage)
- Hasanpaşa (Metrobus Garage)
- Şahinkaya [Beykoz]
- Cobancesme [Alibeykoy]
- Beylikdüzü (Metrobus Garage)