Where is Çifte Minareli Madrasa? Historical and Architectural Features

where is the double minaret madrasah, historical and architectural features
Photo: wikipedia

Twin Minaret Madrasah (Madrasah Hatuniye), is located in Erzurum in Turkey. It belongs to the Seljuk period. This historical monument has survived until today and has become the symbol of the province of Erzurum where it is located. It is visited by thousands of local and foreign tourists every year.

Historical


This historical building, which was built in 1253 by the daughter of Anatolian Seljuk Sultan Alaeddin Keykubad Hüdâvent Hatun, is one of the greatest masterpieces of Anatolia. It is also called as "Hatuniye Madrasa" because of Hüdâvent Hatun.

Location

In Erzurum city center; It is located opposite the Erzurum Ulu Mosque, facing Erzurum Castle and the Clock Tower.

Architectural features

Its cupola is the largest of the cupolas in Erzurum. The double minaret, decorated with colorful tiles, 26 meters high, has become the name of this historical work. It has a courtyard, 2 floors, 4 iwans, 37 rooms and a mosque. It is built on an area of ​​1.824 m² (38m x 48 m). It is the biggest example of open courtyard madrasas in Anatolia. The portal on the north facade is a complete work of art. Rather than Taçkapı form, there are fountain niches and two half round buttresses. The rosters of minarets made of 16 corrugated, turquoise colored tile-inlaid bricks are also remarkable. Cylindrical minarets rising from both sides of the crown are decorated with brick and mosaic tiles. The names of “Allah”, “Muhammed” and “the first four caliphs” were also engraved on the minarets decorated with tiles. The most ornamental part of the facade is the plant ornaments that turn the crown door, the “dragon”, “life-like” and “eagle” motifs in the thick-erase panels. There are four reliefs, two-sided on the right and left of the crown door. On the right is the double-headed eagle board. Geometric decorations that feature the first feature of the Double Minaret Madrasa architecture; It is mostly located on the column bodies in the courtyard, on the doorways of the student rooms, on the front façades of the iwans. There are vegetative decorations on the crown door, on the surfaces of the arches connecting the columns of the courtyards and in the interior of the cupola. The completed tree of life and eagle motifs on the front exterior are considered to express power and immortality in Central Asia, Turkish belief, rather than a coat of arms. You can enter the courtyard from Taçkapı. There are nineteen rooms on the ground floor and eighteen rooms on the first floor. Courtyard 26 × 10 m. It is surrounded by porticoes in four directions. It is understood that the square room to the west of the entrance was used as a mosque. The porches of the ground floor sit on thick columns. Most of the pillars have a cylindrical body and four have an octagonal body. The rooms are covered with cradle vaults. The second floor of the madrasa was designed as four independent groups between four iwans. It is not possible to move to another section without going down to the first floor. The cells (rooms) on the second floor are rectangular, just like the ones on the lower floor. It is made of crushed stones and covered with a cradle. Different shapes on the upper part of the doors on the lower floor are not found on the upper floor doors.

Destruction

The entrance gates of the madrasah and the cupola located in the interior, especially; The important and valuable pieces in the madrasah architecture were removed by the Russians during the Russian occupation of Erzurum and taken to Russia. Particularly, the destruction on the side walls of the madrasah's top floor entrance door is an indicator of the extent of damage to the work. In addition, in Kümbet upper floor section (in this section, there are corners for each of the mihrab of the period's leaders, each of them has corners), the chain made of rather large and long interlocking hard marble was removed from the ceiling. Only the ring attached to the ceiling at the very beginning is in place. Tile and carved stone motifs are exhibited in the Leningrad museum.

Repair

This masterpiece, which was built about eight centuries ago, was extensively repaired by the Ottoman Sultan Murat IV in previous periods. This historical monument is partially negatively affected by both earthquakes and other negative natural conditions in the region. Regarding partial slippage and surface wear recently; Comprehensive restoration works started with government contributions in 2011 continue as of 2015.


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