Steam locomotives are steam powered locomotives. Steam locomotives were used from the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century.
The locomotives started to be pulled by horses in the wagon, which started to be used in Germany in the middle of 1500s. With the invention of the steam machine in the early 1700s, these roads began to be turned into railways, and the first steam locomotive was manufactured in 1804 by Richard Trevithick and Andrew Vivian in England. The locomotive worked in Wales on the "Penydarren" (Merthyr Tydfil) tram line, which is close to the rail size. In the following period, the twin cylinder locomotive by Matthew Murray was built in 1812 for the operator of Vagonyolu Middleton Railway.
These developments in the UK speeded up the start of the US and Tom Thumb, the first American steam locomotive to work on the Baltimore-Ohio Railway in 1829, started working on this line. Best Friend of Charleston was the first successful railway locomotive.
In the 25 years following the construction of the Trevithick locomotive, a limited number of steam locomotives were successfully used on coal-bearing railways. Towards the end of the Napoleonic wars, this rise in feed prices also had a significant impact. Since the Ievha roads made in cast iron were not strong enough to support the weight of the steam locomotive, these roads with an "L" section where the wheels of the wagon fit were replaced by flat-surface rails and flanged wheels.
In 1814, George Stephenson, drawing on the experience of his predecessors, began to build locomotives with flat surfaces on rails. In more or less all previous locomotives, the cylinders were placed vertically and partially kazanwas immersed in it. In 1815, Stephenson and Losh patented the idea of transmitting the drive power directly from the cylinders, via cranks with the main drive wheels up front, instead of transmitting the drive power from the piston to the main drive wheel via gear wheels. The mechanism, which transmits the driving power with the gear wheels, caused a jerky movement, especially when the wear on the large teeth occurred. The mechanism, which transmits power directly from the cylinder, is leaner, giving designers more freedom.
Locomotive kazanWhile these were formerly in the form of a simple pipe, they have changed into a rotating pipe form and then a tubular form in which many pipes are combined, thus providing a larger heating surface. In this latter form, a series of pipes was attached to a similar plate located on the side of the hearth. Exhaust steam from the cylinders caused an explosion as it went through the pipes and into the chimney from the smoke end, thus keeping the fire alive while the locomotive was in motion. While the locomotive was standing still, a braid was used. Henry Booth, accountant of the Liverpool and Manchester Company, in 1827 introduced the further development of multipipe. kazanreceived the patent. Stephenson also used the invention on his Rocket locomotive (but first it took quite a long time to make sure that the connecting collars on the end plates to which the copper pipes were attached were not watertight).
After 1830 the steam locomotive took the form it is known today. The cylinders were placed either horizontally or slightly inclined at the end where the smoke came out, and if the fireman's place was, it was located at the end where the stove burned.
Cylinders and axles kazanbeing affiliated with or kazanAs it ceased to be placed directly under the hood, a frame had to be made to hold the various parts together. The bar frame, which was first used in British locomotives, was soon applied in the USA as well, making the transition from wrought iron to cast steel. The rollers were mounted outside the frame. In England, the bar frame was replaced by the plate frame. In this, the rollers were housed inside the frame and had spring suspensions (helical or leaf-shaped) for the frames and axle bearings (lubricated bearing) to hold the axles.
steel after 1860 kazan With the beginning of being used in construction, it was possible to work at higher pressures. Towards the end of the 19th century, 12 bar pressure became common in locomotives; in compound locomotives, a pressure of 3,8 bar was used. This pressure rose to 17,2 bar in this har age. In 1890, the cylinders of express locomotives were made with a diameter of 51 cm and a stroke of 66 cm. Later, in countries such as the USA, the cylinder diameter increased to 81 cm and both locomotives and wagons began to be made larger.
The first locomotives had axle-powered pumps. However, these only worked when the engine was running. In 1859, the injector was found. KazanThe steam (or later exhaust steam) coming from kazanwas filling up. A “check valve” (one-way valve) kazanwas holding it in. dry steam, or kazantaken from the top of a perforated pipe or kazanIt was taken from a point at the top of the roof and collected in the steam roof. This dry steam was then transferred to a regulator, which controlled the distribution of the dry steam. The most important development in steam locomotives was the introduction of superheating.
Through a gas pipe, the steam is first brought to the furnace and then to the furnace. kazanThe curved tube that carries a collector at the front end of the hood was found by Wilhelm Schmidt and used by other engineers. The savings in fuel, especially water, were immediately evident. For example, 'saturated' steam was produced at a pressure of 12 bar and a temperature of 188 °C; this steam expanded rapidly in the cylinders, being heated to another 93°C. Thus, in the 20th century, locomotives were able to operate at high speeds even with short cut-off times of 15%. Steel wheels, fiberglass kazan Advances such as coatings, long-stroke piston valves, direct steam passages, and superheating contributed to the final stage of steam locomotive application.
KazanThe steam from it was also used for other purposes. In order to increase traction, instead of flushing, steam “sandblasting” was introduced in 1887, which increased the friction force. The main brakes were actuated by vacuum from the machine or compressed air supplied by a steam pump. In addition, heating was provided by the steam carried to the wagons by pipes and electric light was obtained from the steam dynamos (generator).