Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela or Madiba (c. 18 July 1918 - d. 5 December 2013), South Africa Anti Apartheid (anti-discrimination) activist and the first black president of the Republic of South Africa. In 1994, he was elected president for the first time in the elections attended by all the public. His management focused on disintegrating Apartheid's heritage, preventing racism, poverty and inequality. Mandela, who was a Democratic Socialist as a political view, chaired the party from 1990 to 1999 at the political party of the African National Council.
Born in the Tembu (Thembu) tribe, which speaks the language of Kosa (Xhosa), which belongs to the Bantu languages, Mandela studied law at Fort Hare University and Witwatersrand University. While living in the districts of Johannesburg, he adopted the anti-colonial movement and joined the ANC and became a founding member of this party's youth arm. When the National Party implemented Apartheid in 1948, it stood out in the ANC's Defiance Campaign in 1952 and was elected as chairman of the Transvaal ANC arm at the People's Congress. While working as a lawyer, he was constantly arrested for his provocative activities and the Trials of Betrayal that lasted from 1956 to 1961. Although he initially said there would be non-violent protests, he collaborated with the South African Communist Party and founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) in 1961, which would later attack state targets. He was arrested in 1962 and sentenced to life imprisonment for conspiracy and sabotage to overthrow the government. Mandela was sentenced first on Robben Island and then at Pollsmoor Prison. In the meantime, an international campaign was organized to be released in 1990, that is, 27 years later.
After leaving prison, he wrote the autobiography of Mandela, the head of the ANC, and led the negotiations with President FW de Klerk in 1994 to end Apartheid, with the election of the general public and the majority of the ANC. He established a new constitution as Head of State and established the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights violations while implementing policies such as land reform, fighting poverty and improving health. He acted as mediator during the Lockerbie Disaster talks between Libya and the UK internationally. He refused to participate in a second election and was replaced by his deputy, Thabo Mheki. Mandela later took part in charity as a national leader and struggled more with poverty and AIDS.
Mandela received international acclaim for her anti-colonial and anti-apartheid view, and won over 1993 awards, including the Nobel Peace Prize in 250, the Liberty of the Presidency of the United States of America and the Order of the Soviet Lenin. He is seen as the “Father of the Nation” in South Africa.
Nelson Mandela's past and many films have been the subject of their lives. While Long Walk to Freedom is his autobiographical work, Mandela: The Long Path to Freedom is a 2013 film adapted from this book.
Mandela was born on July 18, 1918 in Mvezo, South Africa. His family is from the Tembu tribe, who speaks the language of Kosa. His father is the chief of this tribe, Gadla Henri Mandela. After finishing high school, he entered Fort Heyr University. He was involved in political events while studying here. A student was removed from school on the grounds that he was involved in a boycott and organized it. He left Transkei and went to Transvaal. He worked here as a police officer in the mines for a while. Meanwhile, he continued his university education, which he had abandoned, through distance education. He graduated from Vitvaterstrand University's law department in 1942 and started to work as a lawyer. He received the title of the country's first black lawyer.
In January 1962, he went abroad to seek support. He traveled to England and Africa. It provided arms and money assistance from African countries and socialist countries. Upon his return to the country, he was tried with his friends to go abroad without permission, to provoke the public, to organize sabotage and assassinations. He argued that the public did not have to comply with the laws passed by the parliament, in which all were not represented and whites were represented. He was sentenced to life imprisonment by the white government in 1964. It was the symbol of African blacks who fought against racial discrimination with this behavior.
Nelson Mandela has been called the world's most famous prisoner. After spending 27 years in Robben Island (Seal Island) in South Africa, his name was heard in the 1980s, when the fight against racism intensified all over the world. He was released unconditionally in 1990 by President De Klerk. She was 71 when she was released. In addition to South African blacks, many whites were delighted with his release. Mandela's “Struggle is my life. I will fight for the independence of blacks until the end of my life. ” He flaged him among the people.
When he was released from prison in 1990, he worked and established a democratic South Africa. Africans believe that without Mandela this cannot happen. Today Mandela is considered a freedom fighter. He has received more than 40 awards in 100 years. He was elected the first black president of South Africa on May 10, 1994. In South Africa, he was known for his nickname Madiba, which the elders of his tribe wore.
Mandela was removed from the US terrorist list in 2008.
Mandela, who was hospitalized on June 8, 2013, died on December 5, 2013.
Mandela made her first marriage with Evelyn Ntoko Mase in 1944, in the 13-year marriage, two boys named Madiba Thembekile (Thembi) (1946-1969) and Makgatho Mandela (1950-2005) and two girls, whose names are Makaziwe Mandela (Maki; 1947 and 1953). It has been. Since the first girls died when they were 9 months old, they named the second one in his memory. Mandela, convicted on Robben Island, was not allowed to attend the funeral when her first son Thembi died in a traffic accident in 1969.
His second wife, Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, took the lead of the blacks after Nelson Mandela was sent to Robben Island 18 months after the birth of their second daughter Zindzisva. After Mandela was released from prison in 1990, his wife was tried for kidnappings and murder crimes and led to 1996 divorce.
Their first daughter, Zenani, married the Esvatini prince Thumbimizi Dlamini, and was no longer allowed to visit his father in prison.
Nelson Mandela made her third marriage with Graça Maçhel on her 80th birthday. Graça Machel is the widow of former Mozambique head Samora Machel, who died in 1986 in a plane crash.
In 1992, the Atatürk International Peace Award was given to the President of the African National Congress, Nelson Mandela. Mandela did not initially accept the award; but later changed his mind and accepted the award. Mandela cited discrimination against the Kurdish people as a reason for not accepting the award. Mandela was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize in 1962, the Nehru Prize in 1979, the Bruno Kreisky Human Rights Prize in 1981, and the UNESKO's Simon Bolivar Prize in 1983. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 with De Klerk.