Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, or Madiba (b. 18 July 1918 - d. 5 December 2013), was a South African Anti Apartheid activist and the first black president of the Republic of South Africa. In 1994, he was elected president for the first time in the elections attended by all people. Its administration focused on the dispersal of Apartheid's legacy, prevention of racism, poverty and inequality. Mandela, who is a Democratic Socialist in political view, was the party chairman of the African National Council political party from 1990 to 1999.
Born in the Tembu (Thembu) tribe, which speaks the Kosa (Xhosa) language, which belongs to Bantu languages, as the son of a tribal chief, Mandela studied law at Fort Hare University and the University of Witwatersrand. While living in the boroughs of Johannesburg, he embraced the anti-colonial movement and joined the ANC, becoming a founding member of this party's youth branch. When the National Party implemented Apartheid in 1948, it stood out at the ANC's Defiance Campaign in 1952, and was accordingly elected chair of the Transvaal ANC branch at the People's Congress. While working as a lawyer, he was arrested for repeatedly provocative activities and Treason Trials from 1956 to 1961. Although he initially said that there would be non-violent protests, he collaborated with the Communist Party of South Africa in 1961 to form the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), which would later attack state targets. He was arrested in 1962 and sentenced to life in prison for conspiracy and sabotage to overthrow the government. Mandela served his sentence first on Robben Island and later in Pollsmoor Prison. Meanwhile, an international campaign was organized for his release, to be approved in 1990, 27 years later.
After he was released from prison, Mandela, who became chairman of the ANC, wrote his autobiography, and the establishment of an election with president FW de Klerk in 1994, in which the ANC won by a large majority, sparked talks to end Apartheid. As Head of State, he created a new constitution and created the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights violations while implementing policies such as land reform, combating poverty, and improving health. He acted as a mediator during the Lockerbie Disaster talks between Libya and the UK internationally. He refused to participate in a second election and was replaced by his deputy Thabo Mheki. Mandela later took part in charity work as a national leader and struggled more with poverty and AIDS.
Mandela won international acclaim for his anti-colonial and anti-apartheid view, and won over 1993 awards, including the Nobel Peace Prize in 250, the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Soviet Order of Lenin. He is seen as the "Father of the Nation" in South Africa.
Nelson Mandela's past and experiences have been the subject of many films. Long Walk to Freedom is his autobiographical work, while Mandela: The Long Road to Freedom is a 2013 film based on this book.
Mandela was born on 18 July 1918 in Mvezo, South Africa. His family is from the Tembu tribe, who speak the Kosa language. His father is Gadla Henri Mandela, the chief of this tribe. After finishing high school, he entered Fort Heyr University. He got involved in political events while reading here. He was suspended from school for being involved in and organizing a student boycott. He left Transkei and went to Transvaal. He worked as a police officer in the mines for a while. Meanwhile, he continued his university education, which he had left halfway through, through distance education. In 1942, he graduated from the law department of Vitvaterstrand University and started working as a lawyer. He received the title of the country's first black lawyer.
In January 1962 he left the country to seek support. He traveled the UK and African countries. It provided arms and money aid from African and socialist countries. On his return to the country, he and his friends were tried with allegations of going abroad without permission, provoking the public, organizing sabotage and assassinations. He argued that the people do not have to abide by the laws enacted by the parliament in which not all are represented and where the whites are represented. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1964 by the White administration. With this behavior, he became the symbol of African blacks fighting against apartheid.
Nelson Mandela has been called the world's most famous prisoner. After 27 years of imprisonment on Robben Island (Seal Island) in South Africa, his name was heard in the 1980s, when the struggle against racism intensified all over the world. He was released unconditionally in 1990 by the president De Klerk. He was 71 years old when he was released. Many whites as well as South African blacks were delighted at his release. Mandela's “Struggle is my life. I will fight for black independence for the rest of my life. " His saying made him a flag among the people.
When he was released from prison in 1990, he worked and established a democratic South Africa. Africans believe this cannot happen without Mandela. Today Mandela is considered a freedom fighter. He has received more than 40 awards in 100 years. On May 10, 1994, he was elected South Africa's first black president. In South Africa, he was known by his nickname Madiba, which the elders of his tribe gave him.
Mandela was removed from the US terrorist list in 2008.
Mandela, who was hospitalized on June 8, 2013, died on December 5, 2013.
Mandela made his first marriage to Evelyn Ntoko Mase in 1944, with two boys named Madiba Thembekile (Thembi) (13-1946) and Makgatho Mandela (1969-1950) and two daughters named Makaziwe Mandela (Maki; 2005 and 1947) in their 1953-year marriage. has been. Since their first daughter died when she was 9 months old, the second one was named the same in her memory. Mandela, who was convicted on Robben Island when his first son Thembi died in a traffic accident in 1969, was not allowed to attend the funeral.
His second wife Winnie Madikizela-Mandela assumed the leadership of the blacks after Nelson Mandela was sent to Robben Island 18 months after the birth of their second daughter Zindzisva. After Mandela was released from prison in 1990, his wife was tried for kidnapping and murder and resulted in their 1996 divorce.
Their first daughter, Zenani, married the prince of Esvatini, Thumbumuzi Dlamini, and was no longer allowed to visit her father in prison.
Nelson Mandela made his third marriage to Graça Maçhel on his 80th birthday. Graça Machel is the widow of former Mozambique president Samora Machel after her death in a plane crash in 1986.
In 1992, Atatürk International Peace Prize was given to Nelson Mandela, President of the African National Congress. Mandela did not initially accept the award; however, he later changed his mind and accepted the award. Mandela cited the discrimination against the Kurdish people as the reason for not accepting the award. Mandela was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize in 1962, the Nehru Prize in 1979, the Bruno Kreisky Human Rights Prize in 1981, and the UNESKO's Simon Bolivar Prize in 1983. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 along with De Klerk.