About Muradiye Complex

about muradiye kulliyesi
Photo: wikipedia

Muradiye Complex, Sultan II. The complex built by Murad in Bursa between 1425-1426. It also gives its name to the district where it is located.


Built for the purpose of spreading and opening the city, the complex consists of Muradiye Mosque, Turkish bath, madrasa, imaret and 12 tombs built in the following years. In the following years, with the burial of many dynasty members, it gained the appearance of a graveyard belonging to the palace and became the second burial place that hosts the most palace after Istanbul. The inscriptions of the gravestones and tombs of Bursa that were removed with various expropriations were brought to the mosque.

The complex was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List as one of the components of the World Heritage Site “Bursa and Cumalıkızık: The Birth of the Ottoman Empire” in 2014.

Complex structures

The main building of the complex is the Muradiye Mosque. It is in the form of poor mosques. It has two minarets. At the entrance, a magnificent wooden core with geometric ornaments developed from twenty four-arm stars on the ceiling was mounted during the repair made after 1855. The wooden muezzin shaft and the altar and the minarets of the plaster in the Rococo style were made after the 1855 earthquake.

The 16-cell madrasa structure is to the west of the mosque. The building, which is a typical early madrasah, was restored in 1951 and used as a Tuberculosis Dispensary for a long time. Today it is used as Cancer Diagnosis Center.

The mosque is 20 m. Imaret, which is located in the northeast of Istanbul, was built of rubble stone and covered with Turkish style tiles. Today it serves as a restaurant.

The bath, which is a very simple and simple structure, consists of coldness, warmth, two halvets and kulhan sections. The building was repaired in 1523, 1634 and 1742 and used as a warehouse for many years; Today it is the Disabled Center.

restoration

In the Bursa Earthquake of 1855, the mosque was slightly damaged, its minaret was split, the dome of the tomb was separated, and the classroom and the walls of the madrasah were damaged, and the complex had a major repair.

In the three-phase restoration started in 2012, the lead coating renovation work of the 12 tombs in the first phase, the relay, restitution and restoration work for the complex in the second phase; In the third stage, the plaster on the fresco was engraved and the fresco and calligrapher writings of the time below were unearthed one by one in their original and original form. When the complex was restored in 2015, the complex was opened to visitors.

Mausoleum community 

II. Apart from the tomb where Murad sleeps alone, 4 tombs belonging to princes, 4 belonging to wives of sultans and a tomb belonging to wives of princes were built and in these tombs 8 princes, 7 sons of princes, 5 princes' daughters, 2 sultan wives and 1 sultan's daughter were buried together at different dates. There are also two open tombs where members of the palace who are not members of the dynasty are buried. All tombs except the tomb of Şehzade Mahmut have mihrab niche on the south walls. There are no mummies in any of the tombs.

  1. II. Murad Tomb is the biggest of the tombs in the complex. For Sultan Murat, who died in Edirne in 1451, his son II. It was built by Mehmet (1453). Sultan II. Because Murad wanted to be buried near his elder son Alaaddin, whom he lost in 1442, his corpse was brought from Edirne to Bursa and as per his will, his body was directly buried in the ground without being placed in a sarcophagus or sarcophagus; The tomb was arranged as an open top for rain to fall upon, and with a gallery around it for hafizes to read the Quran. The most magnificent place of the plain tomb is the eaves that cover the portico at its entrance. During the restoration works completed in 2015, late Baroque and Tulip Period motifs were identified on the inner walls of the building. II. According to Murad's will, no burials were made next to him; sarcophagi belonging to sultans, Prince Alaaddin and his daughters Fatma and Hatice, II. It is located in the simple room that can be reached by passing through the Murat tomb. 
  2. Midwife (Gülbahar) Hatun Tomb, II. It is an open tomb, thought to have been built for Mehmet's midwife. There is no information about the exact identity of Gülbahar Hatun, but the idea that the person lying here is the midwife of Fatih has become a tradition. It is thought to have been built in the 1420s. It is the most modest of the dynastic shrines in Bursa.
  3. Hatuniye tomb, II. It is the tomb built for Mehmet's mother, Hüma Hatun, in 1449. It is not clear to whom the second of the two sarcophagi in the tomb belongs.
  4. Gülşah Hatun tomb was built for Gülşah Hatun, one of the wives of Fatih Sultan Mehmet, in the 1480s. The stencils and decorations of the plain and small building have been erased and have not survived. Although the name of Bayezid's son Şehzade Ali is written on the second sarcophagus in the tomb, there is no prince of Bayezid with this name in the records. 
  5. Cem Sultan Tomb is the tomb that is the richest decoration of the complex. The walls are 2.35 m above the ground. It is covered with turquoise and dark blue hexagonal tiles. This tomb was built in 1479 for Prince Mustafa, the Governor of Karaman, the son of Fatih Sultan Mehmed. After the funeral of Cem Sultan was brought to Bursa and buried here in 1499, it started to be known as the Cem Sultan tomb. In the four marble sarcophagi, Fatih's son, Şehzade Mustafa, and Şehzade Cem, II. The sons of Bayezid, Şehzade Abdullah and Şehzade Alemşah, who lost their lives in his life, are buried. The walls are covered with turquoise and dark blue hexagonal tiles up to a height of 2.35 meters from the ground, and the perimeter of the tiles are gilded stamped. Places that do not have tiles such as belts, allons, hoops and domes are decorated with very rich engravings, especially the cypress motifs are in the malakari technique. 
  6. Şehzade Mahmut Tomb, II. It was built by Architect Yakup Şah and his assistant Ali Ağa by his mother Bülbül Hatun for the son of Bayezid, Şehzade Mahmut, who died in 1506. Two sons of Prince Mahmut, Orhan and Musa, who were strangled when Yavuz Sultan Selim came to the throne (1512), and then Bülbül Hatun were buried in this tomb. It is one of the richest domes of Muradiye with its tiles.
  7. II. There are also sarcophagi of his daughter Kamer Hatun and Kamer Hatun's son Osman in the tomb of Gülruh Hatun, one of Bayezid's wives.
  8. II. The tomb of Şirin Hatun, one of Bayezid's wives, was built at the end of the 15th century.
  9. Şehzade Ahmet's tomb was built with a decree of Yavuz Sultan Selim dated 1513. Its architect, Alâaddin, is the building's master Bedreddin Mahmud Bey, and his scribes are the masters of Ali, Yusuf, Muhiddin and Mehmed.[1] According to the latest information, the brothers Şehzade Ahmed and Şehzade Korkut, who were strangled by Yavuz Sultan Selim because of his ascension to the throne, and Şehzade Şehenşah, who died while their father was still on the throne, Bülbül Hatun, Şehenşah's son Mehmed, are buried in the tomb. It is thought that the tomb belongs to Kamer Sultan, the daughter of Şehzade Ahmet, although it is controversial to whom the other sarcophagus belongs. 
  10. Mükrime Hatun (d. 1517), the wife of Şehzade Şehenşah and the mother of Mehmet Çelebi, lies in a separate tomb.
  11. Şehzade Mustafa Tomb II. It was built by Selim (1573). The funeral of Şehzade Mustafa, who was strangled by his father Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in 1553, was buried elsewhere in Bursa and then transferred to this tomb. There are also sarcophagi belonging to the mother of Şehzade Mustafa, Mahidevran Sultan, Şehzade Mehmet, and Şehzade Murat, the son of Şehzade Bayezid, who was strangled at the age of 3. The most distinctive feature of the tomb that distinguishes it from the others is the original wall tiles on which the verses with gold gilding are written. Known to have been built by Architect Mehmed Çavuş, one of the Hassa architects, there is no mihrab in Bursa tombs. A niche and a cupboard are placed in the inner corners of the walls on both sides of the entrance.
  12. Saraylılar Mausoleum, which is an open mausoleum, is thought to belong to two older sisters of Mahidevran Sultan. 

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