The Treaty of Lausanne (or the Lausanne Peace Treaty of upgrade via the period of Turkish made), in Lausanne, Switzerland on July 24, 1923, Turkey with the British Empire Grand National Assembly representatives, the French Republic, the Kingdom of Italy, the Japanese Empire, the Kingdom of Greece, Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Peace treaty signed by representatives of the Kingdom of Slovenia (Yugoslavia) at Beau-Rivage Palace on the shores of Lake Leman.
By the summer of 1920, the winners of the First World War had finished their reckoning with the defeats, and the process of imposing peace treaties on the countries that lost the war had been completed. Germany in Versailles on June 28, 1919, Bulgaria in Neuilly on November 27, 1919, Austria in Saint-Germain on September 10, 1919, and Hungary in Trianon on June 4, 1920. Agreements were signed, but an agreement was signed with the only defeated Ottoman Empire on August 10, 1920 at the Ceramic Museum in the suburbs of Sevres, 3 km west of the capital of France, in Sevres. The reaction of the Turkish Grand National Assembly to the Treaty of Sevres was very harsh in Ankara. He sentenced 1 persons who signed the agreement with the decision of the Ankara Independence Court number 3 and Grand Vizier Damat Ferit Pasha to death and declared the traitor. Sevres remained as a draft agreement because no country except Greece approved it in the councils of any country. The Treaty of Sèvres was never implemented, as a result of the fact that the struggle in Anatolia succeeded and ended in victory, although it was not approved. However, in the process leading to the Treaty of Lausanne with the Liberation of Izmir, he sent the fleet, which also had 2 aircraft carriers within the UK, to Istanbul. At the same time the US has sent 13 new warships to the waters of Turkey. In addition, it is known that the USS Scorpion ship under the command of Admiral Bristol was permanently in Istanbul between 1908 and 1923 by acting as an intelligence officer.
The first talks
After the signing of the Mudanya Armistice Treaty after the victory of the TBMM Government against the Greek forces, the Entente States invited the TBMM Government to the peace conference to be held in Lausanne on 28 October 1922. Applicant Rauf Orbay first wanted to join the conference to discuss the conditions of peace. However, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk found it suitable for İsmet Pasha to participate. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who also participated in Mudanya meetings, found it appropriate to send İsmet Pasha as the chief representative to Lausanne. İsmet Pasha was brought to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the work was accelerated. The Entente States also invited the Istanbul Government to put pressure on the Grand National Assembly of Lausanne. The Turkish Grand National Assembly, which reacted to this situation, abolished the reign on November 1, 1922.
Parliamentary Government of the Lausanne Conference to joining the National Pact to perform, set up the blocking of an Armenian state in Turkey, capitulations removal of problems between Turkey and Greece (Western Thrace, the Aegean islands, population change, war reparations) decoding, Turkey and Europe It decided to discontinue negotiations if an agreement could not be reached on the Armenian homeland and the capitulations that aimed to solve the problems (economic, political, legal) between their states.
In Lausanne, the Turkish Grand National Assembly faced not only the Greeks who attacked Anatolia and defeated the Ottoman Empire, but also the states that defeated the Ottoman State in the First World War, and had to face all the liquidation cases of this empire that is now in history. On November 20, 1922, the Lausanne negotiations started. Long discussions were held on Ottoman debt, Turkish-Greek border, straits, Mosul, minorities and capitulations. However, no agreement was reached on the removal of capitulations, the evacuation of Istanbul and Mosul.
The interruption of negotiations on February 4, 1923 brought the possibility of war to the agenda once the parties did not compromise on fundamental issues and there were significant differences of opinion. Commander-in-Chief Mister Mustafa Kemal Pasha ordered the Turkish Army to start preparations for war. if war breaks out again, this time to the Soviet Union entered the war was announced in Turkey. Haim Nahum Effendi minority representatives in leadership have become mediators have supported Turkey. and can not afford a new war in the reaction of their public Allies Lausanne urged Turkey again to restart peace talks.
Discussions with mutual concessions between the parties started on April 23, 1923, negotiations that started on April 23 continued until July 24, 1923 and this process ended with the signing of the Lausanne Peace Treaty. the agreement signed between the representatives of the signatory countries, were discussed in parliament as required by law Parties which require the approval by the parliaments of countries in international treaties and Turkey by August 23, 1923, by Greece 25 August 1923, Italy 12 by March 1924, by Japan, May 15, 1924 ' Signed in. The United Kingdom approved the agreement on July 16, 1924. The agreement entered into force on August 6, 1924, after the documents that all parties approved were officially forwarded to Paris.
Issues Discussed and Decisions Taken in the Lausanne Peace Treaty
- Turkey-Syria Border: The borders drawn in the Ankara Agreement signed with the French have been accepted.
- Iraqi Border: Mosul on the treaty can not be provided for, in this regard the Government of the United Kingdom and Turkey would negotiate its own agreement among them. This dispute has turned into Mosul issue.
- Turkish-Greek Border: It was accepted as determined in the Mudanya Armistice Treaty. Meric River in the west of Elm station and Bosnaköy Greece's war reparations to the destruction of the Western response was given to Turkey in Anatolia.
- Islands: The provisions of the Treaty of London signed by the Ottoman Empire on the Greek rule over the islands of Lesbos, Limnos, Chios, Samothrace, Samos and Ahikerya and the Athens Treaty of 1913 and the decision reported to Greece on 1913 February 13 It has been accepted on the condition that it is not used for purposes. The Turkish domination of the islands less than 1914 miles from the Anatolian coast and the Bozcaada, Gökçeada and Rabbit Islands has been accepted.
All rights on the Twelve Islands, which were temporarily left to Italy in 1912 by the Uşi Treaty by the Ottoman State, were waived in favor of Italy with the fifteenth article.
- Turkey-Iran Border: It was determined according to the Treaty of Kasr-ı Sirin, signed between the Ottoman Empire and Safavid State on May 17, 1639.
- capitulations: All removed.
- minorities: In the Lausanne Peace Treaty, the minority is designated as non-Muslims. All minorities were accepted as Turkish nationals and it was stated that no privileges would be granted in any way. Article 40 of the Treaty provides the following provision: “Turkish nationals belonging to non-Muslim minorities will benefit from the same procedures and guarantees in terms of law and practice as well as other Turkish nationalities. In particular, they will have equal rights to establish, manage and supervise, and freely use their own language, and freely perform their religious rituals, with any charities, religious and social institutions, all kinds of schools and similar educational and training institutions to pay for themselves. Exchange of Turks in Western Thrace, Greeks in Anatolia and Eastern Thrace, and Turks in Greece, apart from the Greeks in Istanbul.
- War compensation: The Entente States gave up the war compensation they wanted due to the First World War. Turkey, please 4 million gold price demanded from Greece as however, this request was not accepted. 59. It was agreed upon that the matter of war crimes committed in Greece and Turkey was waived and only pay war reparations as Greece, gave the region Elm.
- Ottoman debts: Ottoman debts were shared among the states that left the Ottoman Empire. The chapter falls to Turkey was ordered to pay by installments as the French franc. Duyun-u defeated German Empire in the Austro-Hungarian Empire Public administration committee and representatives of the state administration was removed from the board and new tasks together with the activities of institutions With continuing treaty are given. (Treaty of Lausanne article 45,46,47, 55, 56… XNUMX, XNUMX).
- The straits: Straits are the most discussed topic during interviews. Finally, a temporary solution was brought. According to this, non-military ships and planes would pass through the straits during peacetime. An international committee, whose head is Turkish, was created in order to demilitarize both sides of the Straits and provide passage, and it was decided to continue these arrangements under the guarantee of the League of Nations. Thus, Turkish soldiers were prohibited from entering the Straits area. This provision was replaced by the Montreux Straits Convention, signed in 1936.
- Foreign schools: It was agreed to continue their education in accordance with the law will put Turkey.
- PatriarchsWorld Orthodox Patriarchate to abolish all privileges at the time of the Ottoman Empire in the case of religious leaders only fulfill the condition of religious affairs and was allowed to keep relying on the promises made in this regard in Istanbul. However, there was no single provision in the text of the treaty regarding the status of the patriarchate.
- Cyprus: The Ottoman Empire against the Russians pulled him to the British in 1878 as a temporary condition that reserved rights in Cyprus had given the United Kingdom government. The UK officially announced that it had added Cyprus to its territory on November 5, 1914, following the start of World War I. The Ottoman State did not recognize this decision. Turkey has accepted the Treaty of Lausanne with Article 20 of the United Kingdom sovereignty of Cyprus.