Charlie Chaplin (Born April 16, 1889, London - Born December 25, 1977), British cinema director, actor, writer, soundtrack composer, editor and comedian. He has become synonymous with the character named “Şarlo” (English: Charlot, Tramp).
Chaplin, who was born and raised in one of the poorest areas of London, started cinema in the USA in 1913. In the film of Kid Auto Races in Venice, which was shot after his first film Making A Living in 1914, he created the style of the "Charlo", with his baggy trousers, bowler hat, big shoes, constantly turning his cane and creating ridiculous mizens with his clumsy movements. Over the following years, he gained an unprecedented reputation worldwide with the influence of the newly developing cinema, playing in more than sixty short films, including films such as The Immigrant and The Adventurer in 1917. Chaplin, who also started feature films with A Dog's Life in 1918, became a partner of the United Artists film company they founded with Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks and DW Griffith, such as Golden Rush, City Lights, Great Dictator, Asri Zamanlar, Circus and Stage Lights. signed masterpieces.
Chaplin, who has included all the examples of comedy cinema in his films, which has been considered impossible for the period conditions, has preserved all the examples of comedy cinema until the end, but has been able to show his dramatic structure in the scenes where excitement and movement are minimized. He melted his heavy criticism towards populist approaches, some forms of management he never adopted and technology in this style of comedy and he was able to quietly convey it to the audience.
Despite collecting the admiration of people in every country where his films are shown all over the world with the 'modern clown' he created, the smear campaign initiated in this country due to his rejection of United States citizenship; Chaplin was banned from entering the United States due to events such as four separate marriages with women who were quite younger than him, paternity lawsuit opened for him for a while, the scene in which he kicked a US officer in The Immigrant movie, and finally interpreting some scenes in the Gold Rush movie as communist propaganda. Chaplin, who settled in Switzerland, where he and his wife and children will live until the end of his life, returned to the USA years later to receive the Oskar Special Award in 1972. In the following year, he won the Oscar award once again with the movie called Stage Lights. When he was 1975 years old in 86, Queen of England II. She was awarded the title of knight by Elizabeth.
Charlie Chaplin (Charlough) was born on April 16, 1889, in East Lane, Walworth, one of London's poorest districts. Charlie's mother and father who left before he was three years old were professional artists working in music halls and various theaters. His mother, Hannah Harriet Pedlingham Hill (1865-1928), whose stage name was Lily Harley, first appeared on stage professionally at the age of 19. Growing up in various houses in London's poor neighborhoods with his mother and his brother Sydney Chaplin, his life was challenged by the situation of his mother, who experienced psychological imbalances. Anne Hannah lost her voice during a stage performance in 1894, and her psychological problems increased immediately after the economic difficulties she experienced. After her hospitalization in a rehabilitation center, her children Charlie and Sydney were sent to their father, Charles Chaplin Sr., who lived with his mistress. Charlie and Sydney were sent to Kennington Road School during this period. Charles Chaplin Sr would lose his life when his son Charlie was only twelve, due to alcoholism he could not overcome when he was 37 years old.
As soon as Hannah's disease recurred shortly after she left the rehabilitation center, the children were sent to one of the nursing homes, this time generally known as the workhouse, known for their very poor conditions. The days in this nursing home located in the eastern part of Lambert in the east of London were very difficult for Charlie, who was separated from his mother and sibling and was quite young. These days of poverty, which Chaplin spent in Walworth and Lambert, would leave deep traces on him, and often appear in the places and subjects he chose in his films in the years to come.
Sydney and Charlie later started working in theaters and music halls with the influence of the ability and habit of coming from the family. Chaplin had his serious stage experience while working in the band "The Eight Lancashire Lads".
She died in Hollywood in 1928, seven years after she was brought to the US by her children. Charlie and Sydney, whose fathers are different, had a brother named Wheeler Dryden, born in 1901, over their mother, Hannah. Dryden was kept away from Hannah by her father due to her mother's mental illnesses and was raised in Canada. Dryden, who went to the USA to see his mother in the mid-1920, later worked with his brothers on film projects and was Chaplin's assistant.
After Sydney Chaplin joined the famous Fred Karno company of the period in 1906, Chaplin succeeded in joining this community by following him in 1908. Chaplin toured the USA between 1910 and 1912 with his traveling Karno company. Just five months after his return to England, he went to the US again on October 2, 1912, together with Karno. On this tour, he worked with Arthur Stanley Jefferson, who would later portray Stan Laurel from Laurel and Hardy, and shared the same room. After a while Stan Laurel returned to England, Chaplin stayed in the USA and continued his tour with Karno. During a show in 1913, when Mack Sennett caught his attention, he joined his team by making an agreement with Keystone Studios, which he owned. Thus, on February 2, 1914, he stepped into the cinema where he could fully demonstrate his talent by starring in the single reel film, Making a Living, a silent film directed by Henry Lehrman. Chaplin; Although he was initially suspected by Mack Sennett due to his ambitious attitude and his “strangeness” and independent character due to being an Englishman, he soon proved his talent and strengthened his position. Chaplin, who starred in 35 films during a year with Keystone, quickly became famous.
In 1916, Chaplin agreed with the film company Mutual Film Corporation to make a series of comedy. The films he made during this period, in which he produced twelve films in the eighteen-month period, was among the most influential comedy films in cinema. Chaplin later said that his period with Mutual was the happiest period in his career.
Chaplin founded his own film company after his deal with Mutual ended in 1918. After the audio film period, he made City Lights (Turkish: City Lights), produced in 1931, which is considered to be the biggest movie of him.
Chaplin always made him feel sympathetic to the left view. In his silent films, he made a reference to the bad management policies in the fight against poverty through the character of “The Great Depression” through The Tramp (punk) character. In Modern Times (Turkish: Asri Zamanlar), he drew attention to the bad situation of workers and poor people. The Great Dictator criticized Nazi Germany with his film very hard, and the US officially still in peace with Germany at that time caused the film to start a smear campaign against Chaplin in the USA.
Techniques used in his films
Chaplin has added new excitement to the cinema world of all the movies that his dreams and creativity have thought and created intuitively. It has never improved allowing the screen to turn off completely at once. In his films, he displayed the dialogues in writing by switching to a different screen, but he was able to take advantage of technological advances and overcome this task.
Chaplin's firm stance began to deteriorate gradually after the 1960s, and it was getting harder to communicate with him. He lived in a wheelchair in 1977. Chaplin died in sleep in Switzerland in Christmas of 1977. On March 1, 1978, a small Swiss group attempted to kidnap ransom for ransom, but the thieves were caught before they reached their goal. Chaplin's body was removed from 11 meters under water in Lake Geneva 1,8 weeks later and buried in his grave.
Charlie Chaplin Movies
- My Life in Pictures (1974)
- My Autobiography (1964)