Who is Bülent Ecevit?

Who is bulent ecevit
Who is bulent ecevit

Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (28 May 1925, Istanbul - 5 November 2006, Ankara); Turkish politician, journalist, poet, writer, Minister of Labor and Social Security, Minister of State, Deputy Prime Minister. Turkey Prime Minister four times between the years 1974-2002 has undertaken the task. He served as the Chairman of the Republican People's Party between 1972 and 1980, and the President of the Democratic Left Party between 1987 and 2004. Ecevit, who was the Minister of Labor in the governments established by İsmet İnönü between 1961 and 1965, was one of the most important names in the 20th century Turkish political life with his thoughts and practices.


Ecevit, who started his political career in CHP, entered the parliament as the CHP Ankara deputy for the first time in the 1961 general elections. He was elected chairman in place of İsmet İnönü, who resigned in 1972. The party chairman during the 1973 general elections in Turkey has received 33,3% of votes. In 1974, he became the prime minister for the first time in the coalition government he established with the National Salvation Party, headed by Necmettin Erbakan. Cyprus Operation was carried out in 1974 during the Prime Ministry period. This coalition government, which lasted for 10 months, was dissolved with the resignation of Ecevit. Turkey's local elections in 1977 the party vote share has increased to 41.4%. This voting rate has passed down in history as the highest voting rate of a left wing party in multi-party political life. In 1978, he established a new government and became prime minister again. He was dismissed when he failed in midterm elections in 1979.

Ecevit was included in the policy ban for 12 years after the 10 September Coup, along with the leaders of all other parties. While the political ban continued, the Democratic Left Party was established under the chairmanship of his wife Rahşan Ecevit. When his political ban was lifted with a referendum in 1987, he became the head of the DSP. Turkey has declared 1987 general elections, the party's deputy on failure to remove from active politics and left the chairmanship. However, he returned to active politics in 1989. In the DSP-MHP-ANAP coalition, which was established in 1999, he was once again a prime minister. He was not a candidate for the Presidency since he was not a university graduate in the 2000 presidential elections, and thanked the coalition parties' proposal to amend this provision and bring him a presidential proposal. He left active politics with the 2004th Ordinary Congress held in 6. He died on Sunday, November 5, 2006 as a result of circulatory and respiratory failure.

Family
Bülent Ecevit was born on May 28, 1925 in Istanbul. The name Mustafa comes from his grandfather Kürdizade Mustafa Şükrü Efendi, one of the teachers of Huzur-u Hümayun. Fahri Ecevit, born in Kastamonu, the son of his father Kürdizade Mustafa Şükrü Efendi, was a forensic professor at Ankara Faculty of Law. (According to the identity card in Bülent Ecevit's AÜ DTCF student identity card dated May 5, 1951, father's name is Mehmet Fahrettin, again according to the identity card in his identity card identity card dated 15 January 1945, his father's name Fahrettin, on the other hand, Prof. Dr. Fahri Ecevit in the declaration of death in his newspaper, and also in his business card, Dr. Dr. Fahri Ecevit [citation needed]) Fahri Ecevit later entered the politics and became Kastamonu deputy from CHP between 31-1951. His mother Fatma Nazlı, who was born in Istanbul, was a painter. Mecca Şeyhülislam Hacı Emin Paşa, who served as the protector of the holy land in Saudi Arabia during the Ottoman period, was the grandfather of the mother by Bülent Ecevit.

Ecevit, who has been knowledgeable about inheritance for a long time, did not make any attempt to own heritage. Ecevit's statement to the press revealed that the public heritage consisted of about 110 acres of land and immovable property. The inherited territory made up 99 acres of the Masjid Nebevi region. In the determination of the informal value made by the Madinah Court, the real estate was valued at 11 billion. Alphan Altınsoy, one of the lawyers of the case, stated that the total value of the lands amounted to 2 billion dollars. Ecevit donated the wealth it had inherited in the last period of its life to benefit Turkish pilgrims. Ecevit was not active in politics when he announced that he had donated the legacy to Diyanet.

training
Bülent Ecevit graduated from Robert College in 1944. Although he enrolled in the Department of English Philology, first of all, Ankara Faculty of Law and then Faculty of Language and History-Geography, he did not continue his higher education.

Work life
He started his career in 1944 as a translator at the Press and Broadcasting Directorate. He worked as a clerk in the Press Office of the London Embassy between 1946-1950. In 1950, he started working in Ulus newspaper, the publication of Cumhuriyet Halk Party. After serving his military service as a seven-officer in 1951-52, he returned to the newspaper. When Ulus newspaper was closed by Democrat Party, he worked as writer and editor-in-chief at Yeni Ulus and Halkçı newspapers. In 1955, he worked as a guest journalist in The Journal and Sentinel, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA. In 1957, he went back to the USA with the Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship Fellowship, and made studies on social psychology and the history of the Middle East for eight months at Harvard University. Meanwhile, Henry A. Kissinger, who Ecevit referred to as “my teacher,” [citation needed] was the rector of Harvard University. He attended anti-communism seminars at Harvard in 1957, between 1950 and 1960, with people like Olof Palme and Bertrand Russell.

In the 1950s, he appeared in the editorial staff of Forum Magazine. He wrote daily articles in Milliyet newspaper in 1965. He published monthly Özgür Insan in 1972, weekly Search in 1981 and monthly Güvercin in 1988.

Marriage

In 1946, he married his friend Rahşan Aral from the school. After 14 years after his death, his wife Rahşan Ecevit passed away on January 17, 2020.

Political life

Republican People's Party
Ecevit, who signed up to the CHP in 1953, first served on the Youth Branch Central Board. At the age of 32, with the nomination of İsmet İnönü's son-in-law Metin Toker, he became a deputy from the CHP in the elections of 27 October 1957. Starting his political life as a deputy, Bülent Ecevit was among the names that entered the Party Assembly in the CHP 12th Ordinary Congress, which convened on January 1959, 14. After the May 27, 1960 Military Intervention, he became a member of the Constituent Assembly from the CHP quota. In the general elections of 1961, he was elected Zonguldak deputy. He also served as minister of labor in 1961 coalition governments headed by İsmet İnönü, who served between 65-3. In this period, the enactment of the Collective Bargaining Agreement, Strike and Lockout Law (24 July 1963) made efforts to expand social security rights.

He was re-elected as a deputy from Zonguldak in the 1965 general elections, which was won by the Justice Party (EP) headed by Süleyman Demirel. Bülent Ecevit started to lead the view of the Left of the Middle within the CHP, which returned to the opposition after this date. In the same period, a click emerged within the party that opposed the Middle Left. He was elected as the general secretary of the 18-year-old CHP at the 1966th Congress, which convened on 18 October 43. For the first time in the history of CHP, a general secretary visited all CHP organizations from districts to villages one by one and met with party members and delegates. Ecevit became increasingly sharp with his hardworking, oratory and democratic left position within the party. The Left of the Middle was accepted as the fundamental principle of the party. Ecevit argued that with the Left of the Middle movement, the CHP pulled a wall to the left and democracy would be able to live continuously with the AP pulling a wall against the far right.

The conflict between Turhan Feyzioğlu and Ecevit, who opposed the "Left of the Middle" policy in 1967, escalated. The chairman of the inonu was holding the parliamentary group Feyzioğlu while supporting Ecevit. After the 28th Extraordinary Congress held on 1967 April 4, 47 deputies and senators led by Feyzioğlu left the party and established the Güven Party. A group led by Kemal Çizgi remained in the party and continued the fight against the Left of the Middle policy. Secretary General Ecevit explained the development plan of the villages and put forward the slogan “The land is tiller, the water user” (11 August 1969).

After the memorandum of the Turkish Armed Forces on March 12, 1971, significant differences of opinion emerged within the party regarding the attitude of the CHP. İsmet İnönü did not approve of open opposition to the intervention, while Ecevit opposed his party's contribution to the government formed by the military administration and resigned from the general secretariat, saying that the March 12 memorandum was opposed to the "Left of the Middle" movement within the CHP (21 March 1971). Inonu, who entered into an intense fight with Ecevit, announced that he would resign in the 4th Extraordinary Congress, which was held on May 1972, 5, in the words of “Ya Ben, Bülent” if his policy was not approved by his party. He was elected as the chairman of the General Assembly on May 507, 709, instead of İsmet İnönü, who resigned on May 8, 1972, when Ecevit supporters received the vote with 14 votes for 1972 in the vote of confidence in the Assembly for the party assembly. Thus, İsmet İnönü became the first president to change as a result of the struggle within the party in Turkish political life. After the congress, Kemal Çizgi and his group left the party, first established the Republican Party, and soon joined the National Trust Party and joined the Republican Trust Party (CGP).

Republican People's Party General Directorate and prime minister
He opposed the election of Faruk Gürler, which was supported by the soldiers in the 1973 presidential election, with AP leader Süleyman Demirel. The Presidential crisis ended on April 6, 1973 with the election of Fahri Korutürk, on which Ecevit and Demirel agreed. However, despite Ecevit's decision not to participate in the elections to which Faruk Gürler was a candidate, CHP Secretary General Kamil Kırıkoğlu and his friends resigned from the party.

In the general elections of 14 October 1973, which was the first general election led by CHP Ecevit, it issued 33,3 deputies with 185 percent of the votes. The CHP's voting rate increased by 5.9 percent compared to the previous election; The party's voting rate declined in rural areas, but increased in cities. However, although the CHP led by Ecevit received the most votes, it did not win the majority. On January 26, 1974, he was the first prime minister in the coalition government he established with the National Salvation Party (MSP). One of the most important practices of the Ecevit government was the release of poppy cultivation on July 1971, 1, which was banned by the pressure of the United States in June 1974.

Meanwhile, the concept of "democratic left", which was first used in a forum organized by CHP youth branches in 1970, was included among the principles of the party regulation in the CHP regulation congress on June 28, 1974. Ecevit described this principle as an indigenous left-wing trend of thought, based on the country's objective conditions, with no dogma and wannabe.

Operation Cyprus
In July 1974, while Bülent Ecevit was prime minister, pro-EOKA Greeks backed by the military junta in Greece battered against Makarios in Cyprus. The army was alarmed because the lives of the Turks living on the island were compromised due to the coup. London goes Ecevit, Turkey as well has been met with officials of the British government as guarantor states have signed the agreement on Cyprus could not find a common solution to the situation in Cyprus. The government led by Ecevit decided to intervene in the military.

The Cyprus Peace Operation, which started on 20 July, was launched on the 14th of August. Peace Operation followed. After the Cyprus Operation, Ecevit started to be known as the “conqueror of Cyprus”.

Nationalist Front and minority governments
Despite the success of the Cyprus Operation and the great public support, the contradictions within the CHP-MSP coalition government, which was seen as a historical secular-religious reconciliation, have also grown with the effect of the political amnesty and the dispute over Cyprus. This coalition government, which lasted for 10 months, ended on September 18, 1974 with the resignation of Ecevit. Upon the dissolution of this government, the First National Front Government, consisting of AP-MSP-MHP-CGP parties, where Süleyman Demirel served as prime minister, was established.

In the general elections of 1977, the Republican People's Party managed to increase the game to 41,4 percent. This multi-party vote rate of a leftist party in the history of the Republic of Turkey has passed into history as the highest percentage of votes gained in political life. At the same time, this vote rate became the history of the highest vote received by the Republican People's Party after 1950.

Ecevit decided to establish a minority government as it increased the voting rate but could not win the majority according to the election system at that time (relative election system). Due to the fact that this minority government could not get a vote of confidence, II. The National Front government (AP-MSP-MHP) was established. Ecevit, with the support of the Democratic Party and the Republican Trust Party, in addition to the 11 deputies (Güneş Motel Incident) who left the AP with the saying “I am looking for 11 deputies without gambling debts”. He became the prime minister again by overthrowing the Nationalist Government and establishing a new government on January 5, 1978.

However, Ecevit was unable to fulfill its promises and changes during the election propaganda and as the opposition leader. Terrorism, which has accelerated even more, has reached massacres in cities such as Malatya and Maras with ethnic and religious provocations. Inflation rate also exceeded 100 percent, strikes spread. TÜSİAD asked the government to resign by giving full-page criticism ads to the newspapers. In addition to the support of 11 deputies (Tuncay Mataracı, Hilmi İşgüzar, Orhan Alp, Oğuz Atalay, Mete Tan, Güneş Öngüt, Mustafa Kılıç, Şerafettin Elçi, Ahmet Karaaslan, Enver Akova, Ali Rıza Septioğlu) who came from the AP and were held as ministers. His concessions and rumors about corruption harmed Ecevit.

Ecevit, who was unsuccessful in the midterm elections on October 14, 1979, was dismissed and Süleyman Demirel founded a minority government on November 25, 1979 with the support of the MSP and MHP.

Assassination attempts
Bülent Ecevit was subjected to many unsuccessful assassination attempts. One of them in the US, while others took place in Turkey.

Ecevit has been subjected to various attacks since the establishment of coalition governments in the 70s. The most important of these took place on July 23, 1976 in New York and on May 29, 1977 at Çiğli Airport, where civilian flights took place. The attack during a trip to the US after the Cyprus Operation in 1976 was prevented by the FBI agent, who was the protector of Ecevit. Mehmet İsvan, brother of Istanbul Mayor Ahmet İsvan, was injured in the attempt at Çiğli Airport. The allegations that the weapon used in the assassination was in the Special War Department were discussed with various testimonies in the following years.

September 12 and political banned period
The armed forces under the command of the Chief of General Staff Kenan Evren with the 12 September coup took over the country's administration. Ecevit, who was held in Hamzakoy (Gallipoli) for about a month with his wife Rahşan Ecevit, was removed from politics along with other party leaders. When the political party activities were stopped on October 28, 1980, he resigned from the CHP Presidency on October 30, 1980. Due to the intense struggle and democracy against military rule, he was first banned from going abroad in April 1981. Due to an article published in Arayış magazine, which he started to publish in 1981, he remained in prison from December 1981 to February 1982, and Arayış magazine was closed by the military regime in 1982. Later he was detained again between April and June 1982 on the grounds that he made a political statement to the foreign press.

Ecevit was included in the policy ban on 7 years together with the prominent Article 1982 of the 1982 Constitution, adopted in the popular vote of 4 November 10, along with the leaders of all other parties.

Democratic Left Party
Ecevit, who broke with the former CHP cadres on September 12, supported the establishment of the Democratic Left Party (DSP) between 1983-85. In 1985, while Bülent Ecevit's ban on politics continued, DSP was established under the chairmanship of his wife Rahşan Ecevit. He participated in the propaganda trips of this party, chaired by Rahşan Ecevit in the September 1986 midterm elections. Various lawsuits were filed against him on the grounds that he violated the ban on politics.

Bülent Ecevit was criticized on the grounds that despite the unification of the Social Democracy Party and the People's Party under the name of the Socialist Democratic People's Party in November 1985, he opposed the merger demands and divided the left votes.

Again in this period, some opposing voices started to complain that there was no democracy within the party in the DSP, where the image of the family party gradually settled in the public. Celal Kürkoğlu, who led the opposition movement at the 14nd Board of Directors meeting held by the group opposed to Rahşan Ecevit on June 1987, 2, was declared as the “President” at the meeting attended by the founding members who were stated to be expelled from the party. In this process, opponents and the party management filed criminal complaints, internal discussions and courts were brought to courts. Celal Kürkoğlu, who claimed “General Presidency” for about three months, joined SHP with his 14 friends on September 1987, 15.

Knowing Ecevit Democratic Left Party Presidency
With the referendum held in 1987, when the ban on politics of old politicians was lifted, Bülent Ecevit took over the DSP (13 September 1987). In the general elections held in November of the same year, Ecevit announced that he would leave the party's chairmanship and active politics in the first congress after the DSP could not pass the 10% election threshold and remove the deputy. However, returning to politics in early 1989, Ecevit was re-led by the party members.

October 20, 1991 elections and stressed the need to protect the national unity of secularism Ecevit argued that Turkey should come to the country's state leaders. He criticized the SHP's inclusion of the People's Labor Party (HEP) members in the candidate lists against the "do not divide social democratic votes" campaign carried out by the Sosyaldemokrat People's Party (SHP) party; He claimed that SHP cooperated with "dividers". When they came to power, they announced that they would establish a strong cooperative order consisting of producers, consumers and sellers. He was elected as a deputy from Zonguldak and entered the parliament with 6 deputies from his party. When the CHP reopening came to the agenda, he suggested that the CHP congress decide to join DSP. He did not attend the CHP congress, which was held on September 9, 1992, even though he was called.

In the early general elections held on December 24, 1995, DSP's votes rose to 14,64 percent, the number of deputies rose to 76, and DSP became the largest party of the left. Ecevit served as Deputy Prime Minister in the ANASOL-D coalition, which was established on 30 June 1997 under the chairmanship of ANAP President Mesut Yılmaz. After the coalition government was dropped by the no-confidence on November 25, 1998, Bülent Ecevit became the fourth prime minister, after about 11 years, by establishing the DSP minority government with the support of parties outside the CHP on January 1999, 20. While it is in power, PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan by Ecevit's minority government arrested and brought to Turkey in Kenya (February 4, 15), Ecevit made again after the 1999s boom; DSP emerged from the general elections held on April 1970, 18 as the first party with 1999 percent of the vote.

Bülent Ecevit, who was tasked with establishing the government after the elections, was re-seated as prime minister in the ANASOL-M coalition founded with ANAP and MHP on 28 May 1999.

He was not a candidate for the Presidency since he was not a university graduate in the 2000 presidential election. He thanked the coalition parties' proposal to amend this provision and bring him a presidential proposal.

After Süleyman Demirel, there was tension between the President Ahmet Necdet Sezer and the Bulent Ecevit Government due to the occasional refusal of certain laws. This tension reached its peak at the National Security Council (MGK) meeting held on February 19, 2001. Due to the debate he had with President Sezer, Prime Minister Ecevit left the NSC meeting. This crisis was the beginning of hard times in the economy.

Knowing Ecevit Health problems
Bülent Ecevit, who was rumored about health problems, was disturbed on May 4, 2002 and was taken to Başkent University Ankara Hospital. When her condition worsened during her treatment, she was taken to the house by her husband Rahşan Ecevit. Bülent Ecevit, who rested at home for a while, was re-treated at the hospital on May 17 and stayed here for 11 days. Rahşan Ecevit shared his doubts about the treatments in this period with the public. His allegations were acknowledged, but the issue was raised during the Ergenekon Case in the following years.

During Ecevit's illness, discussions about the government and demands for early elections came to the agenda. These discussions were also reflected in his party. Nine members of the DSP, who called themselves "Nine", issued a statement on June 9 and asked for "Living without Ecevit under the leadership of Ecevitler". On 25 July 5, a group of DSP lawmakers who made a press statement on behalf of Bülent Ecevit explicitly criticized Deputy Prime Minister Hüsamettin Özkan, one of the closest names to Ecevit. Özkan then resigned from his post and the party on July 2002, 8. Hüsamettin Özkan's resignation was followed by the resignation of 2002 deputies, 6 of which were ministers, Foreign Minister İsmail Cem Muş MP Zeki Eker. With resignations, the coalition government lost its numerical support in the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Based on these developments, an early election decision was taken on 63 July 31. In the early general elections held on November 2002, 3, DSP did not exceed the threshold and remained out of Parliament.

Bülent Ecevit, who expressed his decision to leave the presidency from time to time after the elections, as before the November 3 elections, declared his successor at a press conference on 22 May 2004 and stated that he wanted to transfer the task to Vice President Zeki Sezer. He left active politics with the 24th Ordinary Congress held on 2004 July 6.

Knowing Ecevit death of
He participated in the funeral of Yücel Özbilgin on May 19, 2006, who lost his life in the Council of State Attack despite his progressing age, deteriorating health, and his doctors. Ecevit, who had a cerebral hemorrhage after the ceremony, remained in intensive care at Gülhane Military Medical Academy for a long time. The visitor book kept for him during this period is called Sidewalk Book. Bulent Ecevit, enter a vegetative state after 172 days later on Sunday, November 5, 2006 Turkey time of 22: 40. (20:40 [UTC]) died as a result of circulatory and respiratory failure.

In order for Ecevit to be buried in the State Cemetery, a law amendment made on November 9 immediately after his death allowed the ministers to be buried in these cemeteries. A large crowd from all over the country and from many countries, especially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, attended the funeral held on November 11, 2006. Five former presidents and politicians attended the funeral. After the funeral prayer performed at the Kocatepe Mosque, he was buried in the State Cemetery. The building of a mausoleum for Ecevit, which was buried in the State Cemetery on November 11, 2006, was also on the agenda.

For Bülent Ecevit, who is known to be Beşiktaş, the website of the Çarşı group at Forzabesiktas.com has been darkened. While on the site, there is a photograph of Bülent Ecevit and his wife Rahşan Ecevit at a rally while saluting the public; Under the photo, "Karaoğlan, Black Eagle Will Not Forget You" was written.

Personal
In the election campaign of the CHP in the 1973 elections, an old woman said, "I want to see Karaoğlan, children at the river." After the question on the form adopted by the CHP and in later years Karaoğlan name has also been used in Turkey for Bulent Ecevit. The slogan of "Our Hope is Karaoğlan" started to be said in the election propaganda. Süleyman Demirel used the term "Allende-Büllende" to compare and refer to his greatest rival, Bülent Ecevit, to the imperialist Chilean socialist statesman Salvador Allende. Ecevit was referred to as the “Conqueror of Cyprus” after the Operation Cyprus Operation during the prime ministry, and the “Conqueror of Kenya” after the capture of Abdullah Öcalan. It is well known in the public for its modest personality.

Ecevit, who became one of the leaders who became a brand with his blue shirt and cap, wrote Bitlis cigarettes, Assembly cigarettes, and his brother-in-law Ismail Hakkı Okday's gift was written by Erika typewriter. He presented this 70-year-old typewriter to the METU Science and Technology Museum.

remembrance
The name of Zonguldak Karaelmas University was changed to “Bülent Ecevit University” in 2012. [29] Kartal Bülent Ecevit Cultural Center came into service in 2005. In May 2016, at Tayfun Talipoğlu Typewriter Museum, which was opened in Odunpazarı, Eskişehir, a statue made of wax made of his own began to be exhibited.

Literary personality
Bülent Ecevit is one of the rare politicians who carried out writing and poetry as well as his political life. Ecevit, who has worked in Sanskrit, Bengal and English, translated the works of Rabindranath Tagore, Ezra Pound, TS Eliot, and Bernard Lewis into Turkish and published his own poems in books.

Books

Knowing Ecevit Poetry books

  • Something Will Happen Tomorrow (All his poems), Doğan Kitapcılık (2005)
  • We raised love together hand in hand, Tekin Publishing House (1997)
  • I Light the Stone (1978)
  • Poetry (1976)

Knowing Ecevit Political books

  • Middle Left (1966)
  • This Order Should Change (1968)
  • Atatürk and Revolutionism (1970)
  • Conferences and Beyond (1972)
  • Democratic Left and Government Crisis (1974)
  • Basic Concepts and Problems on the Democratic Left (1975)
  • Foreign policy (1975)
  • World-Turkey-Nationalism (1975)
  • Society-Politics-Administration (1975)
  • Worker-Peasant Hand in Hand (1976)
  • Turkey / 1965-1975 (1976)
  • Year of Hope: 1977 (1977)

Books written about Bılan Ecevit


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