About Ankara Castle History and Architecture

about the history and architecture of ankara castle
Photo: wikipedia

Ankara Castle is a historical castle located in Altındağ district of Ankara. Although it is not known exactly when it was built, it is known that the castle existed at the beginning of the 2nd century BC when the Galatians settled in Ankara. It was repaired many times during the Romans, Byzantines, Seljuks and Ottomans. Ankara Castle is larger than the outside view. It also hosts various festivals every year.


The castle has lived through various periods in history. After the Romans invaded Galatia at the beginning of the 2nd century BC, the city grew and expanded outside the castle. The Roman Emperor Caracalla had the walls of the castle repaired in 217 BC. The castle was partially destroyed when Emperor Alexander Severus was defeated by the Persians between 222 and 260 BC. After the second half of the 7th century, the Romans started to repair the castle. During the Byzantine period, Emperor II. Justinianos built the outer castle in 2 AD, Emperor III. Leon raised the inner fortress walls while repairing the castle walls in 668. After that, Emperor Nikiphoros I restored this castle in 740 and Emperor Basil I in 805. The castle was captured by the Seljuks in 869. The castle, which was captured by the Crusaders in 1073, came under the rule of the Seljuks again in 1101. I. Alaeddin Keykubad had the castle repaired again, and in 1227 II. Izzeddin Keykavus made new additions to the castle. During the Ottoman period, it was repaired by Kavalalı İbrahim Pasha in 1249 and the outer walls of the castle were enlarged.


The height of the castle from the ground is 110 m. It consists of the inner castle covering the high part of the hill and the outer castle that surrounds it. The outer castle has about 20 towers. The outer fortress turns the old city of Ankara. The inner fortress covers an area of ​​approximately 43.000 m². There are 14 towers, most of which have 16 corners, on the 5-42 m high walls. Its outer walls are approximately 350 m in the north-south direction and 180 m in the west-east direction. extends throughout. The southern and western walls of the inner fortress form a right angle. The east wall follows the recesses of the hill. The northern slope is protected by walls made with different techniques. The most interesting aspect of the protection order; There are 15 pentagonal towers located at 20-42 m along the east, west and south walls. The outer fortress and the inner fortress unite on the hillside overlooking the orator tea in the west at Doğukalesi in the east. In the southeast corner of the inner castle, Akkale, the highest place of the castle, is located. The four-storey inner castle is made of Ankara stone and collecting stones. The inner castle has two large gates. One is called the outer door and the other is the fortress gate. There is an inscription from İlhanlılar on the door. In the northwestern part there is an article showing that the Seljuks had it built. The lower part of the walls is made of marble and basalt, although the brick sections between the blocks towards the upper sections have been damaged to a great extent, the inner fortress has survived to the present day without deterioration. When the city was invaded in the 8th and 9th centuries, marble blocks, column heads, and marble grooves of the waterways were used to quickly repair the castle. Sculptures, sarcophagi, column heads found in the castle structure show that the materials used in the construction and repair of the castle were used.

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