📩 24/04/2022 23:19
The Siege of Estergon, The siege of Estergon, owned by the Austrian Archduke, between the dates of 25 July and 8 August 1543 by the Ottoman Empire. After the siege, which lasted about two weeks, the city came under Ottoman rule.
Under the control of the Austrian Archduke of the Habsburg Dynasty, Estergon was seized in September 1529 by the Ottoman forces led by Sultan Suleiman I. After the army returned to Istanbul, the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand, who wanted to be given to the Kingdom of Hungary through the envoy he sent to Solomon, added Estergon to his land as well as a few settlements after his request was rejected. After these developments, although the Ottoman army led by Suleiman once again took over Hungary, Estergon remained in the hands of Austria. Although Austria's claim to Hungary ended with the Istanbul Treaty signed in June 1533, it besieged Ferdinand Budin nearly three months after the death of Suleiman's king, János I, in July 1540. Although the city was captured by the Austrian forces, the Ottoman forces, whose head was Solomon, took back the city in August 1541. After Suleiman returned to Istanbul, Ferdinand once again attacked the territory of Hungary and a decision was made to organize the region once more.
Moving to Edirne in December 1542, Süleyman went to Hungary in April 1543 after spending the winter here. Estergon was besieged on July 26, 1543 after the capture of Valpo (today's name Valpovo), Szászvár, Anyavár (today's Sióagárd), Máré, Peçuy (today's Pécs), and Siklós by the Ottoman forces. The siege ended when the inner fortress was taken by the Ottoman forces on 8 August. Then, after Istolni Belgrade came under Ottoman rule, the expedition ended and the army returned to Istanbul on November 16, 1543.
Estergon Siege Background
The French ambassador Jean Frangipani, who arrived in Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire in December 1525, for the request of King Franco de Savoie, the king of France, who was taken prisoner of the Holy Roman German Empire after the Battle of Pavia on 24 February 1525. The Ottoman Sultan asked for help from Suleiman I.  Süleyman, who promised to help with the letter he wrote, decided to make a voyage on Hungary even though an agreement was reached between the two states and François was released. First, Grand Vizier İbrahim Pasha was sent to Hungary, and on April 23, 1526, the army led by Solomon moved to Hungary. King of Hungary II. While the Ottoman army won the battle with the army led by Lajos on 29 August 1526; Lajos died in the swamp with some soldiers fleeing the battle. After this battle, the Kingdom of Hungary was tied to the Ottoman Empire and was brought to the head by Süleyman Erdel Voivodeship János Zápolya. However, the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand, brother of Holy Roman German Emperor Karl V. He did not recognize the kingdom of János and declared himself the king of Hungary; After János defeated his forces, he entered Budin on August 20, 1527 and asked him to be recognized as the king of Hungary in exchange for paying taxes to the Ottoman Empire. Rejecting this, Süleyman went on a new expedition on May 10, 1529, and returned to János with the surrender of Budin on September 3, 1529. Although the Ottoman army, which managed to take Estergon on September 7, entered Austria's territory on September 22, 23, it encircled Vienna on September 1529, but the siege was lifted on October 27, and the army returned to Istanbul on December 16, 16.
After the siege of Vienna, he received a rejection reply from Süleyman the second envoy, who was sent by Ferdinand and declared that the Kingdom of Hungary should be given to him. Thereupon, the siege of Budin, which was carried out between October 1530 and December by Ferdinand, who took the cities of Estergon, Vişegrad and Vaç from the Ottomans, failed. Due to the developments, the army led by Süleyman and İbrahim Pasha left Istanbul on April 25, 1532. Some places were seized by the Ottoman in the expedition. The German Expedition by Süleyman ended with his return to Istanbul on 21 November 1532. A few months later, with the Istanbul Treaty signed between the Austrian Archduke and the Ottoman Empire on June 22, 1533, while Ferdinand, whose small territory in the west of Hungary, was left to him, he recognized the Hungarian reign of János and paid 30.000 gold taxes annually to the Ottoman Empire. agreed to give.
After János 'death on 22 July 1540, his wife Izabela Jagiellonka received Suleiman's approval to take over Hungary on behalf of his son János Zsigmond Zápolya, who was born a few days before János' death. Ferdinand, who heard about the events, once again besieged Budin in October 1540, but could not dominate the Hungarian forces in the city. The following year, an army loyal to Ferdinand moved on Budin. The army, which came to the city on May 3, 1541, surrounded the city on May 4. Suleiman, who first sent the forces under the command of the Rumeli Governor Divane Hüsrev Pasha and then the third vizier Sokollu Mehmed Pasha to Budin, went on a campaign with the army on 23 June 1541. The leading Ottoman forces arrived in Budin on 10 July 1541. Learning that the main army was coming, Ferdinand's forces ended the siege on 21 August and began to retreat. The campaign ended when the army returned to Istanbul on 27 November 1541. In 1542, when Ferdinand once again besieged Budin and Pest, Suleiman decided to set out on Hungary once again.
Expedition Preparations and Expedition
After he decided to go on expedition, Suleyman sent Rumeli Beylerbeyi Ahmed Pasha to Rumeli on September 2, 1542, and Janissary Ağa Ali Ağa to Edirne, and ordered the gentlemen of Rumeli and Anatolian provinces and their subordinates to prepare for the campaign. Ahmed Pasha, who first went to Varadin and then to Szeged, provided the banner of the banner to be prepared for the campaign. Under the command of Hüdavendigâr Sancak Bey Hacı Ali Bey, the naval forces, consisting of 371 parts, were assigned to carry ammunition and supplies to the Budin via the Danube from the Black Sea. During the campaign, Karaman Beylerbeyi Pîrî Paşa Damascus was appointed as Damascus Beylerbeyi and former Karaman Beylerbeyi Hüsam Paşa was again appointed as Karaman Beylerbeyi and ordered to protect the border by recruiting soldiers. Silistre, Niğbolu, Vidin, Semendire and Izvornik sanjak beys were assigned to build bridges on the Sava and Drava rivers on the route of the Ottoman forces. After completing his preparations in Istanbul, Süleyman moved to Edirne on 17 December 1542. After spending the winter here, he and his son Bayezid set out for Sofia on April 23, 1543. The forces led by Solomon, who arrived in Belgrade on June 4, merged with the forces under the command of Rumeli Beylerbeyi Ahmed Pasha and Anadolu Beylerbeyi İbrahim Pasha.
The majority of the forces participating in the campaign consisted of state soldiers in the provinces of Anatolia, Rumelia and Budin, and captain soldiers in the center of the state. Soldiers on ships on the Danube and soldiers in some castles in the region also took part in the army during the expedition. The total number of soldiers participating in the campaign varies according to the sources. It is written in the Ruznamçe notebook that there are 15.077 salaries and 13.950 military personnel distributed inconsistencies. As the distribution of salaries was carried out in Siklós, 15.077 soldiers meant the number of soldiers at the time of their stay in Siklós, and the number of soldiers here was 13.950, as in'am distributions were carried out in Istolni Belgrade, the last stop of the campaign.
After the capture of Valpo (today's name Valpovo) on June 22, while the sultan was here, Szászvár, Anyavár (today's Sióagárd) and Máré castles sent news to surrender. The Ottoman forces, who left Valpo on June 28, were reported to have surrendered to Peçuy Castle on June 29. On July 6, Siklós joined the territory of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman forces, who left Siklós on July 12, reached Budin on July 21.
Upon the acceptance of the delivery call on July 25, the forces of the Third Vizier Mehmed Pasha from the north, Janissary Aga Ali Bey, Rumeli Beylerbeyi Ahmed Pasha and Bosna Sancak Bey Ulama Bey on the south, he was surrounded by his forces. There were German, Spanish, Italian and Hungarian soldiers in the castle, whose number varied between 26 and 1.300, according to sources. There were commanders, Martin Lascano and Francisco Salamanca at the beginning of the Spanish, Tristan Vierthaler and Michael Regensburger at the head of the Germans, and Torielli and Vitelli at the head of the Italians. The call for surrender on July 6.000, the fifth day of the siege, was also rejected by the fortresses. As the Ottoman forces entered the gorges opened on the walls on August 31, the defenders of the castle retreated to the inner castle. The siege ended the next day, and on August 6, the inner fortress was taken over by the Ottoman forces.
After the conquest, the region where the city was located became a sanjak and was connected to the Province of Budin. Süleyman, who entered the castle on August 8, turned the basilica inside the castle into a mosque. After the appointment of dizdar, witch and guards to the castle, preparations were started to move to Istolni Belgrade, the next stop of the expedition. On August 12, the envoy of King Zygmunt, King of Lehistan, came to the tent of Süleyman and presented his congratulations and gifts. On August 15, commanders from Tata Castle reported that the castle was surrendered. The Ottoman forces, who left Estergon on August 16, besieged Istolni Belgrade on August 20. On September 22, the city was captured by the Ottoman forces. Preparations for the return began after the city was taken, and the Ottoman forces, who set off from Istoni Belgrade on September 3, came to Budin on September 16, from there to Varadin, and from Varadin to Belgrade. While the army was in Belgrade, Suleyman received the news that his son Mehmed, who was Saruhan (now known as Manisa) Sancak Bey, died here. Süleyman, who ordered that his funeral be brought to Istanbul, reached Istanbul on November 21.
According to the Ruznamic book, while there were 15.077 Ottoman soldiers in Siklós, the number of soldiers in Istolni Belgrade dropped to 13.950. The difference of 1.127 people in between shows the number of people who died during the sieges of Estergon and İstolni Belgrade. Cündî Sinan Bey, Bolu Sanjak Bey, was among those who died during the siege.
On June 19, 1547, the Istanbul Treaty was signed between the Austrian Archduke and the Ottoman Empire. With the agreement that included the Holy Roman Empire, Ferdinand and V. Karl agreed that Hungary was under the control of the Ottoman Empire and gave 30.000 gold fluorine annually to the Ottoman Empire for western and northern Hungary, owned by the Habsburg Dynasty.