Fatih Mosque and Complex is a mosque and complex built by Fatih Sultan Mehmed in Fatih district of Istanbul. There are 16 madrasahs, darüşşifa (hospital), tabhane (guest house), imaret (soup kitchen), library and Turkish bath in the complex. It was built on one of the seven hills of the city. The mosque was restored after the earthquake in 1766 and took its current form in 1771. In the mosque where the ground slips were detected in the 1999 Gölcük Earthquake, ground strengthening and restoration works were initiated by the General Directorate of Foundations in 2008 and opened to worship in 2012.
Fatih Mosque History
It is believed to be the Havariyyun Church built during the reign of Constantine I on the hill where the mosque was located during the Byzantine period. It is believed that the Byzantine emperors were buried on this hill. It is known that Constantinus was buried on this hill, which was outside the city at the time. After the conquest, this building was used as the Patriarchate church. When Fatih Sultan Mehmet wanted to build a mosque and complex here, the patriarchate moved to the Pammakaristos Monastery.
Its construction began in 1462 and was completed in 1469. Its architect is Sinaüddin Yusuf bin Abdullah (Atik Sinan). The mosque was damaged in the 1509 Istanbul earthquake. It was repaired during the Bayezid period. Sultan III. For being ruined by an earthquake in 1766. Between 1767 and 1771, Mustafa had the mosque repaired by Architect Mehmed Tahir Ağa. For this reason, the mosque has lost its original appearance. On January 30, 1932, the first Turkish adhan was read in this mosque.
Fatih Mosque Architecture
From the first construction of the mosque, only three walls of the fountain of the fountain, the fountain, the crown gate, the mihrab, the minarets up to the first balcony, and some of the surrounding wall remained. In the fountain of Şadırvan, the portico parallel to the qibla wall is higher than the other three directions. The outer hoops of the domes have eight corners and sit on the arches. The arches are usually embroidered with red stones and white marbles, only green stones are used in the pivot. The upper and lower windows are surrounded by large moldings. The jambs are made of marble and are marked with very large, strong moldings.
Fatih Mosque Dome
Iron bars are made of thick iron and knob. Eight of the portico columns are made of green curved, two are pink, two are brown granite, and some of the final congregation sites are of corn granite. The heads are all made of marble and all of them are stalactite. The bases are also marble. The courtyard has three doors, one in the Qibla and two in the side. Şadırvan has eight corners. The mihrab's live is stalactite. The cell corners end with a graceful crown, decorated with green pillars, hourglass. There is a single line verse on the old. The twelve-minaret minaret is united with a great harmony with the mosque. Tiled plates are in the window months to the left and right of the last congregation wall.
In the first construction of the Fatih Mosque, walls and a dome were placed on two legs to expand the mosque area, and a half dome was added in front of it. Thus, the dome with a diameter of 26 m has remained the largest dome for a century. During the construction of the mosque for the second time, a plan with a small dome was brought to the square by applying the plan of mosques with buttresses. In the present case, the central dome sits on four elephant oils, and four half domes surround it. The second degree half and full domes around the half domes cover the galleries in front of the ablution taps on the outside and outside. On the left side of the mihrab, there is a Hünkar mafia and rooms, which are entered from the side of the tomb with a wide ramp.
The stone cones of the minarets were built at the end of the 19th century. When architect Mehmed Tahir Ağa was repairing the mosque, he combined the baroque pieces he made with the classical pieces left from the old mosque. The plaster windows of the mosque were replaced with ordinary frames since they were devastated in the last period. Fire pool next to the courtyard door Sultan II. It was built by Mahmud in 1825. The mosque had a large outer courtyard. The door of this to the tabhane flew from the old mosque.
Shrines and Hazire
The tomb of many important names in Ottoman history, especially the tomb of Fatih Sultan Mehmed, is here. Fatih's wife and II. The tombs of Bayezid's mother Gülbahar Valide Sultan, “Pleven Hero” Gazi Osman Pasha, and his mesnevi shrine Abidin Pasha are in the tomb. The tombs of the Grand Viziers, Şeyhülislams, customers and many scientists are here, allowing the Ottoman protocol to be seen together as if it were at the ceremony. Some of the statesmen and members of the ilmiyye tombs here are:
- Grand Vizier Mustafa Naili Pasha
- Grand Vizier Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha
- Grand Vizier Gazi Ahmed Muhtar Pasha
- Seyhulislam Amasyevi Seyyid Halil Efendi
- Şeyhülislam Mehmed Refik Efendi
- Ahmet Cevdet Pasha
- Emrullah Efendi. Minister of Education.
- Yesari Mehmed Esad Efendi. Calligrapher.
- Yesarizade Mustafa İzzet Efendi. Calligrapher.
- Sami Efendi. Calligrapher.
- Amish Efendi. Sufis and Fatih tomb.
- Ahmed Tahir Efendi of Maras. Amiş Efendi's student.
- Kazasker Mardini Yusuf Sıdkı Efendi
- İsmail Hakkı Efendi from Monastir. Selatin mosques preacher.
- Şehbenderzade Ahmed Hilmi Bey. Darülfünun philosophy manager and whether.
- Bolahenk Mehmed Nuri Bey. Musician, teacher and composer.
- Ahmed Midhat Effendi
- Köse Raif Pasha
- Akif Pasha
- Sultanzade Mahmud Celaleddin Gentleman
- Minister of Foreign Affairs Veliyüddin Pasha
- The Minister of Foreign Affairs Mehmed Rasid Pasha
- Hace Ishak Effendi
- Ferik Yanyalı Mustafa Pasha
- İbrahim Subaşı (from Tokat)
- General Pertev Demirhan