Who is Necip Fazıl Kısakürek?

Necip Fazil Kisakurek
Necip Fazil Kisakurek

Ahmet Necip Fazıl Kısakürek is a Turkish poet, novelist, playwright and Islamist ideologist. Necip Fazıl was known for his second poem book Pavement, which he published at the age of 24. Until 1934 he was only known as a poet and he was among the leading names of Bâb-ı Âli, the center of the Turkish press at that time. Kısakürek, who experienced a great change after meeting Abdülhakîm Arvâsî in 1934, is a poet who publicized his Islamist views and led the Great East Movement through 1943 issues published between 1978-512. Magazine, has played a leading role in the spread of anti-Semitism in Turkey.

Family and childhood years


He was born in 1904 in Istanbul as the son of a Marash family. His father was a law student at the time and in later years, he was a bureau of consultancy, Gebze prosecutor's office and Kadıköy Abdülbaki Fazıl Bey, a judge who served as a judge; his mother is Mediha Hanım, the daughter of a family from the Cretan ensars. He was the only child of the family. His family named him "Ahmet Necip". Necip got its name from his father's grandfather Necip Efendi.

He spent his childhood in the mansion of Çemberlitaş, his grandfather Mehmet Hilmi Bey, who was one of the famous judges of the period. He suffered significant illnesses until the age of 15. He learned to read from his grandfather when he was 4-5 years old and became a passionate reader with the influence of his grandmother, Zafer Hanım.

He took his primary education in many different schools. He studied at the French Frerler School in Gedikpaşa for a short time. He was enrolled at the American College in 1912 but was expelled from this school because of his misbehavior; He continued his education at Emin Efendi Neighborhood School in Büyükdere and then at the “Rehber-i İttihat Mektebi”, a boarding school and directed by Raif Ogan. He introduced Peyami Safa, who will be his close friend in the following years, in this school. He did not stay in Rehber'-i İtihat Mektebi too much, but was written to Büyük Reşit Pasha Sample School and then to the first school of Gebze Aydınlı Village, which was followed by mobilization. After her sister Sema died at the age of five, when her mother caught tuberculosis, her family moved to Heybeliada and thus Necip Fazıl completed her primary education in the Heybeliada Numûne School.

Naval School

Bahriyeli Necip entered the Mekteb-i Fünûn-ı Bahriye-i Şâhâne (today's Naval War School) with a test in 1919.1916. Well-known names such as Yahya Kemal Beyatlı, Ahmet Hamdi Akseki, and Hamdullah Suphi Tanrıöver served in this school, where he studied for five years. Nâzım Hikmet Ran, who will take place in the opposite pole of Turkish poetry and thought life according to Necip Fazıl, was a student with two classes at the same school.

Necip Fazıl started to be interested in poetry during his student period at Bahriye Mektebi, and started his first publishing activity by publishing a weekly magazine called "Nihal", which was written in a single copy. By learning English well at school, he had the opportunity to read the works of western authors such as Lord Byron, Oscar Wilde and Shakespeare in their original language. It was in this school that his name, which was Ahmet Necip, was “Necip Fazıl”.

After completing his three-year education at the Navy School, he did not finish the fourth grade, and left school. Necip Fazıl, who went to his uncle in Erzurum with his mother during the occupation of Istanbul, lost his father, who is still very young, by the way.

Years of Darülfünun

He started his higher education at Istanbul Darülfünûnu Faculty of Law and then entered the Literature Madrasa Philosophy Branch. In this school, he met famous literati of the period such as Ahmet Haşim, Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu, Faruk Nafiz, Ahmet Kutsi. His first poems were published in the magazine Yeni Mecmua, published by Yakup Kadri and his friends.

As a result of his success in the exam opened by the Ministry of Education in 1924 to determine the first group to be sent to European countries to continue their education life among high school and Darülfünun students, he was deemed to have completed his university education and was sent to Paris.

Paris years

He entered the Sorbonne University Department of Philosophy (1924). In this school, he met intuitive and mystical philosopher Henri Bergson. He lived a bohemian life in Paris and started to be interested in gambling. At the end of a year, his scholarship was interrupted and he had to return home.

His life until 1934

He continued his bohemian life in Paris for a while in Istanbul. In 1925, he published his first poetry book "Spider Web". In those years he worked in banking, a new profession. He continued his banking career at the Ottoman Bank, which he started in “Bahr-i Sefit Bank”, a Dutch bank. He worked in Ceyhan, Istanbul, Giresun branches in a short time. In 1928, his second poetry book "Sidewalks" was published. The book attracted great interest and admiration.

Towards the end of the summer of 1929 he went in Ankara, Turkey Isbank to "My Chief Accountant" as input. He worked in this institution for 9 years and went up to the inspectorate. During his life in Ankara, he established a close relationship with political elites and intellectuals; He was always together with Falih Rıfkı and Yakup Kadri.

He served as a soldier between 1931-1933. 6 months of military life, naughtiness on the villagers of the 5th Regiment of Taşkışla; He worked as a student at İhtiyat Zabbit School for 6 months and as an officer for 6 months at the same place.

After doing his military service, he returned to Ankara. After the publication of his third poetry book "I and Beyond", he reached the peak of his reputation. He collected the story writings in the magazines in the book "Several Stories Several Analysis".

His life between 1934-1943

The date of 1934 was a turning point in Necip Fazıl biography. That year, he met Abdülhakîm Arvâsî, a Naqshish sheikh. Thanks to his conversations in Abdulhakim Arvasi and Kaşgari Murtaza Efendi Mosque on the road from Eyüpsultan Mosque to Pierre Loti facilities, he had a serious transformation of ideas and mentality. After this meeting, the traces of Sufi thought began to be seen in the poems of Necip Fazıl, who accepted his meeting with Abdulhakim Arvasi as a milestone.

After meeting with Arvâsi, the deep idea he wrote after his depression, he wrote the theater play called "Tohum", his first important work in the new period of his life (1935). The work that emphasizes Islamism and Turkishness was staged by Muhsin Ertuğrul from Istanbul City Theaters. The game did not attract the attention of the public even though it attracted great interest from the art circles.

In 1936, he started to publish the "Tree Magazine", a culture-art magazine. The magazine, the first issue of which was published in Ankara on March 14, 1936, started to be published in Istanbul after the first six issues. The magazine had spirutalistic features and was solid from important literati like Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar and Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı. Largely funded by Turkey's broadcasting lasted 16 points by the magazine Business Bank.

The play “Creating a Man”, which he completed in 1937, was put on stage for the first time in the 1937-38 theater season by Muhsin Ertuğrul at Istanbul City Theaters and created great interest. The work reveals the weakness of man and mind and rejects positivism and dry rationality.

In early 1938, he adopted the offer made to him for the contest opened by the newspaper "Ulus" to write a new national anthem, but he suggested that the contest should be given up. This condition was accepted immediately and thus he wrote the poem “Great Eastern Anthem”. The name "Great East" he gave to the poem became the name of the magazine he would later publish.

Necip Fazıl, who left banking in the fall of 1938, entered the newspaper “Haber” and started journalism. He soon left his academic position at Ankara State High Conservatory, where he was appointed by Deputy Minister of Education Hasan Âli Yücel, and asked for a duty in Istanbul. Necip Fazıl, who was appointed to the Fine Architecture Department of the Academy of Fine Arts, taught literature at Robert College.

In 1934, he published his poem "Çile", which tells about the depression he lived in 1939. In 1940, he wrote a work called “Namık Kemal” on the account of the Turkish Language Association. In the book published on the 100th anniversary of Namık Kemal, Namık Kemal struck from place to place in the subjects of poetry, novelism, playwriting and intellectuality.

In 1941 he married Fatma Neslihan Balaban. He had five children named Mehmet (1943), Ömer (1944), Ayşe (1948), Osman (1950) and Zeynep (1954) from this marriage.

He was sent to Erzurum for 1942 days to serve as a soldier again in the winter of 45. He was convicted for writing a political article while in military service, and was sentenced to prison for the first time; He was imprisoned in Sultanahmet Prison.

Life between 1943-1949

Since 1943, Necip Fazıl Kısakürek started his activities, which demonstrated his political attitude and critique of Turkish modernization. Expressing his understanding of opposition, the vehicle was the “Büyük Doğu” magazine, which it published its first issue on September 17, 1943. The Big East is the only Islamist magazine published at that time. The journal, which initially included the writings of famous names of the period, later dominated the writings of Necip Fazıl with different nicknames. Some of Necip Fazıl's pseudonyms are: BAB, Istanbul Child, BIG EAST, Fa, Criticist, NFK,?, Ne-Mu, Ahmet Abdülbaki, Abdinin Slave, HA.A.KA, Adıdeğmez, Banker, Be-De, Prof . S. Ü., Dilci, İstanbullu, Informant, Detective X Bir….

While the magazine was first closed for a few months in December 1943 on the grounds of "making religious publications and dislike the regime", Necip Fazıl was fired from his work in the Department of Fine Arts Academy. The magazine was republished in February, but closed with a decision of the Council of Ministers in May 1944 on charges of "promoting disobedience to the regime". The rationale was to believe that the hadith that “does not obey those who do not obey Allah” indicates the management of the One party. Necip Fazıl was sent to Eğirdir for the second time by being sent to the second military service.

On November 2, 1945, he began to take out the Great East again. Religious articles were now featured in the magazine, and most of the articles were drawn from his pen using the pseudonym “Adıdeğmez”. Necip Fazıl, who became radical after the magazine was closed in a row, watched the events from the window of the building called Vakit Yurdu during the Tan raid on December 4, 1945 and applauded the young people passing by the building.

The Great East was closed again due to its article dated 13 December 1946. Necip Fazıl was brought to court on charges of “encouraging the nation for bloody revolution” for his play named “Sır”, which started to be serialized in the magazine.

In the spring of 1947, he began to retake the Great East. Necip Fazıl was arrested while the magazine was closed again with a court decision due to the publication of a poem titled “İstimdat from the Spirit of Abdülhamîd” by Rıza Tevfik on 6 June. The poet, who was tried for “Making Propaganda for Sultanate - Insulting Turkishness and Turkish Nation” together with his wife, Neslihan Hanım, who appeared to be the owner of the magazine, was acquitted after being detained for 1 month and 3 days. After this date, not only articles praising Islamism in the magazine; He has published articles on Judaism, Freemasonry and anti-communism.

In 1947, although the "Patience Stone" was deemed worthy of the "CHP Art Award", the decision of the jury was canceled by the Party General Administrative Board. In the same year, Necip Fazıl, who published the humor magazine “Borazan” three times in a period when the Great East did not appear, had to sell all the items in his house in 1948 when his acquittal decision was broken by the Court of Appeal.

Great Eastern Society

The artist founded the Great East Society on 28 June 1949. Cevat Rıfat Atilhan and general secretary Abdurrahim Rahmi Zapsu were the vice presidents in the association he was the president of. In 1950, the first branch of the association was opened in Kayseri. Necip Fazıl was arrested after returning to Istanbul from the opening in Kayseri; When the acquittal verdict in “insulting Turkishness” was overturned by the court of appeal in April, he went to prison with his wife, Neslihan. He was released on July 1950 as the first person released from prison with the Amnesty Law issued by the Democrat Party, who triumphed after the general elections of 15. On August 18, 1950 he began to take out the Great East again. Necip Fazıl suggested that he publish the party in the magazine on the axis of Islam by publishing open letters to Adnan Menderes in the magazine. In that year, he opened the Tavsanli, Kutahya, Afyon, Soma, Malatya and Diyarbakir branches of the Big East Society.

On 22 March 1951, the so-called “Casino Raid” took place. Necip Fazıl, who was caught in a raid on a casino in Beyoğlu, was kept at the police station for 18 hours because of this incident. Stating that he was in the casino to interview in his statements at that time; According to Necip Fazıl, who explained that he was there to keep a man to protect the Great East in the following years, this event is a conspiracy of the Democratic Party.

On March 30, 1951, he published the 54th issue of his magazine. However, before the magazine was distributed to the dealers yet, a decision was made to convene. Necip Fazıl, who was arrested for an unsigned article in this issue, remained under arrest for 19 days. When a sentence of 9 months and 12 days was issued, he postponed his sentence for four months; he then received a 3-month deferment report from the hospital.

Necip Fazıl dissolved the Great Eastern Society, of which he was the president, with a sudden decision on 26 May 1951. It is claimed that he closed the society in exchange for the money he received from the disguised appropriation. He published the main regulation of the Great East Party, which he intends to establish, on June 15, 1951 in the magazine Büyük Doğu. In the order he envisaged, there was the Nine Umde of the Great East versus the Six Arrows of the CHP, and the "Supreme", which was an Islamic supreme against the National Chief. According to the program, a country would be created in which interest, dance, sculpture, adultery, prostitution, gambling, drink, and all kinds of enjoyable items were forbidden, and the criminals would be punished by the method of shortcut. Necip Fazıl took a break from the journal in June 1951. He reported in the last issue that “Muslim Turks will have a daily newspaper”. Daily Büyük Doğu Newspaper started its publication on November 16, 1951.

"Malatya incident" occurred on May 1951, 22 when Necip Fazıl's postponement report from the hospital regarding the conviction in 1952 expired. Ahmet Emin Yalman, the owner and editor of the newspaper Vatan that day, was injured by an assassination attempt in Malatya. Necip Fazıl was charged with instigating Hüseyin Üzmez. The poet was arrested and sent to Malatya on the charge of "inciting and inciting mass murder, medih and employment act of mass murder". While he was serving a 1951-month and 9-day prison sentence for his conviction in 12, he published a leaflet titled “I Tear Your Mask” and made a wide account of what happened to him since 1943 and the events related to the Malatya Event (11 December 1952). Since the Malatya incident trial is still pending, he remained under arrest for a while after his sentence on 1951 conviction. He was released on December 16, 1953, when he was found not guilty of the Malatya Case.

In 1957, he was sentenced to 8 months and 4 days in prison for delayed sentences from various cases.

In 1958, the Jockey Club of Turkey with bespoke "At Symphony" took a pen from work.

Necip Fazıl, who was taken from his home on June 1960 after the 6 coup, was held in the Balmumcu garrison for 4,5 months. Although he was released due to the press amnesty, he was arrested again on the day of his release and transferred to the Toptaşı Prison, since his conviction was finalized while he was in Balmumcu, because of an article allegedly containing an insult to Atatürk. He was released on December 1, 65 after completing the 18-day sentence for 1961 year.

Life after 1960

Necip Fazıl Kısakürek's tomb
After he was released, he started to write in Yeni İstiklal and then Son posta newspapers. 1963-1964't to Turkey gave lectures at various places.

He founded the "BD Idea Club" in 1965. He continued his series of conferences and daily articles; He serialized some of his works in newspapers.

He went to Hajj in 1973. That year, he had his son Mehmet build the "Great East Publishing House". Starting from his poetic work titled “Esselâm”, he started regular publication of his works published by various publishers. On November 23, 1975, a "Jubilee" was organized by the National Turkish Demand Union for the 40th anniversary of its Struggle. In 1976, he published 1980 reports, in the form of magazines and books, that would last until 13, and in 1978, he published the LAST CIRCUIT Great East magazine.

On May 26, 1980, he was selected as the "Sultan of Poets" by the Turkish Literature Foundation and "The Idea and Art Man of the Year" for his work titled "Western Conception and Islamic Sufism" published in 1982.

In 1981, he fell into his room in his house in Erenköy to write his book “Atlas of Islam and Islam”. He frequently accepted Turgut Özal, who was about to set up a new party, into his room and made recommendations.

On 8 July 1981, he was convicted of insulting the spiritual person of Ataturk due to his illegal action on crimes against Ataturk. The decision was upheld by the 9th criminal chamber of the Supreme Court. Necip Fazıl was convicted on the grounds of “being inclined to insult Atatürk”, although the book titled “Not a Traitor to the Homeland, a Great Homeland Friendly Sultan Vahidüddin” was reported by the court.

He died at his home on May 25, 1983. Her body was buried in Eyüp Sultan Cemetery.

Studies

12-year-old poem begins Necip Fazil's first book of poetry was published when the 17-year-old and his poems were taught in the Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education textbooks. The theater works he wrote at a young age were staged for months in the theaters of the period.

His poetry books, Spider Web and Sidewalks, which he published on his return to Paris made him famous at a very young age. He continued to collect appreciation with his new poetry book Ben and Beyond (1932), which he published before he was thirty. The poet, who was also loved by many people, started to be known as “Master Necip Fazıl Kısakürek”.

Necip Fazıl started to stand out with his Islamic identity after meeting Nakshî sheikh Abdülhakim Arvasi in 1934. During this period, he penned the works of theater in which almost all of them had a superior moral philosophy. His plays, such as Seed, Money, Creating a Man, aka Ali Fingerless Salih, attracted great attention. His work, Cinnet Mustatili, contains prison memories.

He published his daily jokes and articles in Yeni İstanbul, Son Posta, Babıalide Sabah, Bugday, Millî Gazete, Her Gün and Tercuman newspapers during the periods when the Big East was frequently closed or collected.

Necip Fazıl Kısakürek's Will

I do not need testament in ideas and feelings. In this bet, all my works, every word, sentence, line and total expression are testaments. If it is necessary to gather this whole body in a single and tiny circle, the word to be said “From Allah and His Messenger; Everything else and superstition. ” is just saying.

Bury me in accordance with the finest Islamic procedures, as I have also shown in my private will! Here I must touch a point that should also be mentioned in the public will.

It is known that we are away from the authorities and individuals who will send flowers and band music to my funeral, and that nobody will do such a problem ... But if a prank will occur in this regard, it is well known to those who love me.

Political ideas

After the Naqshbandi order, which he was involved in in 1934, he began to make evaluations about the political developments in the country. [28] He supported the Tan incident in 1943 and the assassination of Ahmet Emin Yalman in 1945 [1952] with his articles in Büyük Doğu magazine published after 28; He criticized the Sixth Fleet for the Protest Events. [29] During this period, his ideas were embraced by young people in the National Turkish Demand Union. [30]

During the Cold War anti-communism it has been one of the pioneers of the movement in Turkey. He also interpreted the recent history within the framework of the world view and entered history writing as an alternative to official history in this direction.

Reviews

Necip Fazıl's thought pattern developed in the axis of religion, mysticism and mysticism and continued his intellectual struggle within this framework. In addition to the many literary tools that he used to spread his ideas and beliefs, he entered the publishing life and tried to create his own media and wanted to use the opportunities of the Democratic Party government. The aid letter [33], written by the Democratic Party government to Adnan Menderes, the applicant, and the disguised appropriation support of 147.000 liras from the Democratic Party were also subject to Yassıada trials. The historian Ayşe Hür relates Necip Fazıl's demand for money from the disguised appropriation with “gambling addiction” by pointing out her continued addiction throughout her life.

Necip Fazıl Kısakürek Works

  • Spider Web (1925)
  • Sidewalks (1928)
  • Me and Beyond (1932)
  • A Few Stories A Few Analysis (1933)
  • Seed (1935)
  • Expected (1937)
  • Creating a Man (1938)
  • Imprint (1938)
  • Patience Stone (1940)
  • Namık Kemal (1940)
  • Frame (1940)
  • Money (1942)
  • Homeland Poet Nâmık Kemâl (1944)
  • Defense (1946)
  • Glitters from the Ring (From the Army of Parents) (1948)
  • Nam (1949)
  • Desert Descent Nur (Unauthorized Printing) (1950)
  • 101 Hadith (Supplement of the Great East in 1951) (1951)
  • I Tear Your Mask (1953)
  • Infinity Caravan (1955)
  • Muscle of the Madness (from the Serpent Well) (1955)
  • Selections from the Letter (1956)
  • Horse Symphony (1958)
  • TOWARDS THE GREAT EAST (Ideolocian Braid) (1959)
  • Altun Ring (Silsile) (1960)
  • That is why we exist (Desert Descending Nur) (1961)
  • Hasp (1962)
  • Communism in every aspect (1962)
  • Communism and Rural Institute in Turkey (1962)
  • Wooden Mansion (Supplement of the Great East in 1964) (1964)
  • Reis Bey (1964)
  • The Man in the Black Cape (Supplement of the Great East in 1964) (1964)
  • Hazrat (1964)
  • Faith and Action (1964)
  • Stories from Spirit Sprains (1965)
  • The Great Gate (He and I) (1965)
  • Great Hakan II. Abdulhamid Han (1965)
  • A Twinkling Light (1965)
  • Great Oppressed By History I (1966)
  • Large Oppressed People throughout History II (1966)
  • Addition to the Great Gate (from Basbug Guardians) (1966)
  • Two Addresses: Hagia Sophia / Mehmetçik (1966)
  • El Mevahibü'l Ledüniyye (1967)
  • The Vahiduddin (1968)
  • The Ideolocian Braid (1968)
  • Turkey's Landscape (1968)
  • What I Hear from the servant of God I (1968)
  • What I Hear from the servant of God II (1968)
  • Prophet's Ring (1968)
  • 1001 Frame 1 (1968)
  • 1001 Frame 2 (1968)
  • 1001 Frame 3 (1968)
  • 1001 Frame 4 (1968)
  • 1001 Frame 5 (1968)
  • My plays (Great Hakan / Yunus Emre / SP Adam) (1969)
  • My Defenses (1969)
  • Religion Oppressed of the Last Period (1969)
  • Socialism, Communism and Humanity (1969)
  • My Poems (1969)
  • Menderes in My Eyes (1970)
  • Janissary (1970)
  • Bloody Turban (1970)
  • My Stories (1970)
  • Nur Blend (1970)
  • Reshahat (1971)
  • Screenplay Novels (1972)
  • Muscovite (1973)
  • Hazrat (1973)
  • Esselam (1973)
  • Hajj (1973)
  • The Skein (Final Order) (1974)
  • Nexus (1974)
  • 33 of the Basbug Guardians (Altun Silsile) (1974)
  • He and I (1974)
  • The Porte (1975)
  • Addresses (1975)
  • Sacred Trust (1976)
  • Revolution (1976)
  • Fake Heroes (1976)
  • 333 from the Army of Parents (Glitters from the Ring) (1976)
  • Report 1 (1976)
  • Report 2 (1976)
  • Our Way, Our State, Our Remedy (1977)
  • Report 3 (1977)
  • Ibrahim Ethem (1978)
  • The Perverted Arms of the RIGHT Path (1978)
  • Report 4 (1979)
  • Report 5 (1979)
  • Report 6 (1979)
  • Lie in the Mirror (1980)
  • Report 7 (1980)
  • Report 8 (1980)
  • Report 9 (1980)
  • Report 10 (1980)
  • Report 11 (1980)
  • Report 12 (1980)
  • Report 13 (1980)
  • The Atlas of Faith and Islam (1981)
  • Western contemplation and Islamic Sufism (1982)
  • Sufi Gardens (1983)
  • Skull Paper (1984)
  • Reckoning (1985)
  • The World is Waiting for a Revolution (1985)
  • Believer (1986)
  • Anger and Satire (1988)
  • Frame 2 (1990)
  • Speeches (1990)
  • My Highlights 1 (1990)
  • Frame 3 (1991)
  • Offense And Polemic (1992)
  • My Highlights 2 (1995)
  • My Highlights 3 (1995)
  • Frame 4 (1996)
  • Literary Courts (1997)
  • Frame 5 (1998)
  • Accounting of Utilities 1 (1999)
  • The Trick (2000)
  • expectant
  • holiday

NECİP FAZIL KISAKÜREK POEMS

TIME TO LEAVE

Listen to the sounds that bring the evening

Listen to my hearth and let it go

Holding my hair and with your blind eyes

Dive into my old eyes

Get down to the village with the sun, let me go

Shrink, shrink, disappear

Look back as you turn this way

Let it sit in a corner in the corner

My hope has fallen on the flood of years

Fell on the most shaky wire of your hair

Fell like a dry leaf

Let it go to the wind if you want

EXPECTED

Neither patient waits for morning,

What a fresh dead grave.

Nor is the devil a sin,

As much as I expected you.

I don't want you to come,

I found you in your absence;

Let me have your shadow on me

Coming, what's the use now?

TO MY MOM

Mom, you entered my dream.

Let your duvet be my prayer;

Chill in his grave.

I don't understand, I can't tell.

The falling fell after me,

Now the deadlines are ok…

MY HAIR

Let your hair flow from your shoulders

Like water passing over marble

You will feel a crush in you

Like daytime sleep

Hair wire cloth covers always fall tulle tulle

Roses fall to where your eyes touch

Finally a heart falls on you

Like the present feeling of my heart

Your hair shedding in the tongue

Your hair will love with hot breaths

It is an incense that spreads to the heart

Like the mist of darkening eyes



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