From 1856 to 1923, 4.136 kilometers of railway was inherited from our Ottoman period. In the Republican period, approximately 3.000 km of railway was built by accelerating the railway investments. Until 1950, a total of 3.764 kilometers of railway network was reached. During this period, passenger transportation was 42% and freight transportation was 68%. The progress of iron networks that slowed down after 1940 experienced a long pause in the 1950s for more than half a century. This period, in which steel rails were defeated by rubber wheels, was also in the memories with a few steps taken towards the path of nationalization. Produced in Eskişehir with KARAKURT produced in Eskişehir, BOZKURT made history as the first domestic steam locomotive and Revolution car produced in Eskişehir as the first domestic car. 1950 was a milestone for railways in a period when hopes were exhausted in railways and urban rail transportation systems, which were neglected from 2003 to 2003. In this new period, 2023 targets were set, and then there were major developments on steel rails. Abandoned to rot in dusty shelf projects will carry on the railways deducted from the individual shelf Turkey last 15 years into the future giant projects were implemented.
Turkey, met with the YHT in 2009 with the opening of the Ankara-Eskisehir line services and eighth in the world rose to the position of countries using the 8 YHT technology in Europe. On the one hand, our capital was connected to our provinces such as Eskişehir-Konya-Istanbul by High Speed Train, and on the other hand, it was connected to Asia and Europe with MARMARAY. The Silk Road project, which has been our dream for 6 years, was realized with the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars (BTK) line. Marmaray project and ICTA up to London from Beijing to ensure uninterrupted rail transport ranging all over the world and was indicative of the evolving face of Turkey's future. After Ankara-Eskişehir, Ankara-Konya, Konya-Karaman-Eskişehir and Ankara-Istanbul high speed train lines; Ankara - İzmir, Ankara - Sivas, Ankara - Bursa YHT lines will be completed in the near future, and 150 of our provinces, which correspond to 46% of the country's population, will be connected with YHT and there will be large increases in the number of intercity commercial, cultural and touristic visits.
In urban transportation, Marmaray in Istanbul, Egeray in İzmir, Başkentray in Ankara, Balray in Balıkesir and Gaziray in Gaziantep were implemented. Turkey currently has a total of 12 thousand 710 kilometer railway network. Today, in line with the goals of 2023, 10 thousand km of high speed train, 4.000 km of new conventional train line, electrification and signalization works are continuing at a great speed. A total of 2023 km with high-speed train lines in 25.000, and 2035 km in 30.000. Railway targets are planned to be reached. Marmaray, the project of the century, the construction of which has been completed to this day, is accompanied by the Eurasian Bosphorus tube tunnel, the third Bosphorus Bridge and the new metro projects still under construction.Subway everywhere, metro everywhere ” Finishing with the slogan targeted city rail line length until the year 2023 740 km by 2030 will exceed 1100 km.n the other provinces made and the total length of all urban rail systems in Turkey with city-rail will be the system to 2035 It will reach 1500 km. In line with all these targets and plans, the share of rail transport in 2023; In 10 percent and 15 percent of the passenger load 'to reach the target in Turkey, where the percentage of passenger transport in 2035, the ratio of 15, while 20 percent of freight is scheduled removal. In addition, it has been aimed to equip the railway network with smart transportation infrastructures and solution systems in order to integrate with other public transportation systems, logistics centers and Smart transportation systems have been given great importance. As in all areas of transportation, the great change in railways shows us now:
Railway mobilization, which started in the first years of the Republic but has been on the shelf since 1950, has been on the track again with the great investments made on the railway and it has started to develop again with the macus fortune railway projects of Anatolia. While all these developments were taking place, ARUS members, which were established in 2012, started to produce our local and national national brands one by one in line with their unity and togetherness spirit, team work and to date, they have produced 8 national brands and 184 national brand vehicles domestically.
With the circular regarding the use of Domestic Products in Rail Systems, numbered 07.11.2017/2017, published on 22, the Rail Systems published at least 51% of domestic products in the Rail Systems, the domestic contribution in Rail Systems has been turned into a state policy.
With the “Procedures and Principles Regarding the Implementation of the Industrial Cooperation Program” (SIP) approved by the Presidency No. 15 dated 2018 August 36, the localization and national brand production process became official in public and municipal procurements.
In the 18.07.2019th Development Plan published in accordance with the decision numbered 1225 and dated 11, the production of at least 2023% local and national brands in rail systems until 80, the strategic transportation in the rail transportation sector, which is among the priority sectors in 18 Industrial and Technology Strategies published on September 2019, 2023. Decisions were taken to develop materials, produce national and original products, and industrial strategies were determined.
Consequently, ARUS members will be awarded with 2035 high-speed trains and 96 Metro, Tram and Light Rail Vehicles (LRT), 7000 Electric Locomotives, 250 Diesel Locomotives, 350 suburban sets and thousands of passenger and freight car tenders that will be tendered until 500. With all infrastructure investments including 30 billion euro, electrification and signaling, it will make an important contribution in keeping the economy of at least 70 billion euro in the country's economy, with the requirement of using domestic contributions between 60% and 80% of euro and producing national brands. . These new domestic production policies in rail systems will pave the way for other sectors, so at least 50% local contribution requirement in the aviation and defense, energy, transportation, communication, information technologies and healthcare contracts, which are planned to be carried out until 2035, With the introduction of 700 billion euros will be ensured to remain in our country's industry. When the national branded product condition in which we have the license rights of the final products as well as at least 60% domestic contribution in these purchase specifications is brought, then the wheels of our national industry as an independent country in the industry will begin to turn rapidly, the unemployment and current account deficit problem will be solved and among the ten largest economies in the world. we will take our place.
Local and National Brand Train Projects
In 1957, two small steam locomotives, “Mehmetçik” and “Efe”, which were produced with completely local facilities in Eskişehir Draw Workshop, gave the pride of Eskişehir Draw Workshop and hoped to produce big locomotives in our country. In 1961, with the labor of Turkish workers and engineers, the first Turkish steam locomotive with a power of 1915 horsepower, weighing 97 tons and capable of 70 km / h.BLACK WOLF" It was produced. The first Turkish car in 1961 REVOLUTIONIt was produced in Tülomsaş facilities.
In 1968, under the license of the German MAK Company, the production of DH 360 type Diesel Maneuver Locomotives with 3600 Horsepower started and until 1975 25 were produced.
In 1968, with the license agreement signed with the French District Pielstick Company, the production of 16 PA4 V185 type engines started.
In 1971, the first Diesel Electric Outline Locomotive with 2400 horsepower, 111 tons of weight and 39.400 kg of pulling force was produced within the framework of the engine license agreements with the French Traction Export company and the engine license agreements with the Chantiers de L'Atlantique company.
Until 1985, 24000 units of DE 431 type Diesel Electric Outline Locomotive were produced.
In 1986, the production of DE 1100 type Outline and Road Maneuver locomotive with 11000 horsepower was started in 1990, under the framework of the license agreement with West German KRAUSS-MAFFEI company, and diesel engine license agreement with MTU company.
In 1987; Within the framework of the license agreement with American EMD GENERAL MOTORS Company, 2200 units of 22000 horsepower DE 48 type Outline locomotives were produced.
In 1988, the production of E 4300 Type Electric Outline Locomotive with 43000 Horsepower was started within the framework of the Electric Outline Locomotive license agreement with Japanese NISSHO IWAITOSHIBA Company.
In 1994, the production of DH 709 type Diesel Hydraulic Maneuver Locomotive with 7000 Horsepower, which belongs to TÜLOMSAŞ, by producing technology, without any technology transfer, was produced and 20 units were produced. In the same year, 950 horsepower DH 9500 type Diesel Hydraulic Outline and Maneuver Locomotive production activities were started and 26 were produced.
Between 2001-2003, 1000 units of DH 10000 type Diesel Hydraulic Outline and Maneuver Locomotive were produced at 14 Horsepower.
In 2003, the first 89 of the DE 33000 type Diesel Electric Outline Locomotive were produced within the framework of the technology transfer from USA General Motors to meet 6 Outline Locomotive needs for TCDD. In 2006, 83 of the remaining 36 locomotives were produced with 51% local contribution and until 2009, 47 locomotives were produced with a 55% domestic contribution rate and a total of 89 DE 33000 locomotives were added to the TCDD fleet.
Of the other Electric Outline locomotive E68000 series, 80 out of 8 were produced in South Korea, and the remaining 72 were produced in TÜLOMSAŞ with a 10-year production license and delivered to TCDD.
Turkey Wagon Industry Inc. (TÜVASAŞ), in 1951 "Wagon Repair Workshop" was now operating under the name. In 1961, the first wagon was produced in the establishment, which was converted to Adapazarı Railway Factory since 1962. As a result of the export activities started in 1971, 77 wagons were exported to Pakistan and Bangladesh. In 1975, the facility, which was named “Adapazarı Wagon Industry Organization”, produced RIC type passenger wagons at international standards.
Since 1976, the production of electric suburban arrays began with the license of the company Alstom, and a total of 75 series (225 units) were produced and delivered to TCDD. TÜVASAŞ, which gained its current status in 1985, has accelerated new projects by making breakthroughs in research and development activities and engineering services as well as passenger wagons and electrical series manufacturing. Rail buses, which were matured in line with the projects produced in the 1990s and designed by TÜVASAŞ, began to be produced in 2000 with the new RIC-Z type luxury wagon and TVS 1994 air-conditioned and sleeping luxury wagon projects. All 23000 sets of suburban trains, consisting of three 32 serial wagons, which are planned to be manufactured and supplied to operate in suburban lines, have been put into service. Passenger transportation was started with rail buses on the Eskişehir-Kütahya-Tavsanli and Sivas Divrigi, Zonguldak-Karabuk lines, all of the 12 units of 15000 series diesel train sets with two units provided for use in medium-distance transportation.
first time in Turkey 160 km / h speed aluminum body design and project work was carried out by the electric train set TÜVASAŞ. Within the scope of this project, 100 sets of trains with 20 vehicles are expected to be completed and put into service in 2022.
Turkey Railway Machines Industry Inc. (TÜDEMSAŞ); It was put into operation as “Sivas Cer Workshop” in 1939 to repair steam locomotives and freight wagons used by TCDD. Started to manufacture freight wagons since 1953. After 1958, it continued its activities as Sivas Railway Factories. In 1961, as the twin of Karakurt, local and national steamy at Sivas Cer Workshop “Bozkurt Locomotive”Was produced. The first in Tüdemsaş, which contributes to the development of freight and passenger car repair, the production of all kinds of freight cars and spare parts, as well as the development of railway transportation. “New Generation National Load Wagon ”was designed in 2017 and 150 units were produced.
The National Train Project, which was announced to the public for the first time on 17.12.2013, is planned to be realized as 3 separate projects as National High Speed Train, National Electric and Diesel Train Sets and National Freight Wagon. The projects, which are progressing from all branches, are carried out with 3 personnel from public, private sector and university representatives as managers, engineers, scientists and technical teams. The production phase of the projects that are prepared by TÜLOMSAŞ, which will produce the National High Speed Train, TÜVASAŞ, which will produce the National Electric and Diesel Train Sets, and TÜDEMSAŞ, which will produce the National Freight Wagon, is ready. İTÜ, TÜBİTAK, ASELSAN, ARUS and RSK clusters took part as stakeholders in national projects.
In the High Speed Trains with a speed of 250 km / h, which was put out to tender by TCDD, it was aimed to produce original and national brand YHT sets starting from 53% to 74%. This project Turkey, which is out of all license rights and international sales opportunities without any restrictions YHT was planned to have a new generation of technology.
Demand and support of TCDD, with the collaboration of TUBITAK Marmara Research Center and ITU, TCDD's subsidiary TÜLOMSAŞ E-1000 National Electric Maneuver Locomotive higher level after production E-5000 Type Shaft Electric Locomotive Development Project started. As a result of the project planned to be completed in 2021, it will be produced at TÜLOMSAŞ facilities. E-5000 type spindle electric locomotive, Designed and produced in Turkey are expected to come down to the railroad tracks as the most powerful tool.
TÜLOMSAŞ, TCDD Tasimacilik and ASELSAN new team and environment friendly HSL 700 maneuvering locomotiveWas exhibited at the Innotrans 2018 Berlin fair. The project, which started as a modernization project, turned into a new locomotive project with the long-term plans of TCDD Tasimacilik and the new technological developments of TÜLOMSAŞ and ASELSAN. The efficiency was increased by using a more suitable diesel engine for HSL 700, which was designed as a domestic and national brand. HSL 700, which has new generation Li-Ion batteries, uses the electric traction motor at the first start and stops. The locomotive with regenerative brakes stores electro dynamic energy in brakes and landings in batteries. Emission rates of the environmentally friendly locomotive were also minimized. The developed locomotive will be used as a rescue vehicle in tunnels, especially in large factories and railway maintenance centers. Thanks to the less use of the HSL 700's diesel engine and electro pneumatic braking system, maintenance costs have been reduced, and the use of electric motors has reduced energy costs. The new locomotive also has the possibility of external charging outside the warehouses. Weighing 68 tons, the locomotive with a speed of 80 km / h has a power of 700 kW. HSL 700, a product of TÜLOMSAŞ and Aselsan cooperation, will be used by TCDD Tasimacilik in the first place. Another new generation introduced at Eurasia Rail İzmir 2019 fair DE10000 locomotive's outstanding feature is that the control system collects approximately 200 different data during the ride and is stored as digital data. These data are used to inform / warn the driver while driving, to track the locomotive remotely, to record faults, and to create statistics on the usage habits of the driver. Weighing 68 tons, the locomotive can reach 80 km / h.
TÜLOMSAŞ has successfully completed the tests of the 1000 Horsepower Domestic and National TLM6 Diesel Engine and passed to the mass production phase.
The 750 kW project was prepared in cooperation with Tülomsaş and Tübitak MAM. Currently, nationalization studies such as diesel new generation Co-Co type Locomotive Project, new generation 8 cylinder 1200 HP Diesel Engine Project, LPG Wagon Project, Fire Fighting Wagon Project, Diesel Engine Modernization Project are continuing.
Local and National Brand Urban Rail System Vehicles
In our country, 1990 different brands purchased from 12 different countries since 14 are Siemens, Alstom, Bombardier, Hyundai Rotem, H.Eurotem, ABB, CAF, Ansaldo Breda, Skoda, CSR, CNR, Mitsubishi, Rotterdam SG2, MAN Düewag, V.Gotha 10 vehicles with a total value of € 3516 billion were purchased. These vehicles currently serve in 12 provinces including Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, Bursa, Eskisehir, Kayseri, Konya, Kocaeli, Adana, Samsun, Gaziantep, Antalya. Spare parts originating from different brands, foreign exchange loss, inventory cost, maintenance-repair, labor etc. With extra expenses, our country has become a complete foreign addict. These brought an additional cost of about 10 billion euros and cost us 20 billion euros in total.
As a result of great struggles since the establishment of ARUS, Ankara Metropolitan Municipality has brought 2012% local contribution condition for 324 metro vehicles of Ankara Metropolitan Municipality and this term has become a milestone in our country. Our national brands have started to rise one by one by reaching the level of domestic floors in all tenders held after this date.
Rail Systems Supplied by Providing Local Contribution Requirements in Tenders
The best examples of this Durmazlar 18 Silkworm tram and 60 Green City LRT light rail transportation vehicles produced by our company for Bursa Metropolitan Municipality, Durmazlar 18 Panorama national brand tram produced by our company for Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality and 8 Panorama national brand tram produced for Samsun Metropolitan Municipality, 30 tram produced to Istanbul B.B. Bozankaya 30 Talas national brand trams produced by our company for Kayseri Metropolitan Municipality, 18 Istanbul national brand trams produced by Istanbul transportation for Istanbul BB. Today, these vehicles serve in our cities in Istanbul, Bursa, Kayseri, Samsun and Kocaeli.
Domestic and National Rail Transport Systems
The domestic contribution level has exceeded 2012% in the production of 700 domestic and national brand rail transportation vehicles, including HSL 184, which has been produced in our country and serving in our cities since 60.
Bozankaya With our company, 88 metro vehicles for the Bangkok Greenline line and 105 metro bodies for the Bangkok Blueline line were produced and delivered to the city of Bangkok. Soon BozankayaWon the tender for 16 Tramcars for the city of Timişoara and 16 Tramcars for the city of Iasi. DurmazlarWon 24 tram tenders in Poland and started their first shipments. Durmazlarhas also won 100 Tramway contracts in Romania, H.Eurorem won 213 Tramway car tenders in Poland. Thus ARUS members not only in Turkey but also began to export by opening the world.
Exported Domestic and National Rail Transportation Systems
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National Signaling Project
For the first time in our country, within the scope of TÜBİTAK 1007 Program, in order to nationalize the signaling systems supplied from abroad; With the cooperation of TCDD, TÜBİTAK-BİLGEM and ITU, the National Railway Signaling Project (UDSP) has been successfully completed and prototype works have been completed and commissioned at Adapazarı Mithatpaşa station. Within the scope of the project, three main components, namely interlocking system (signaling system decision center), traffic control center and hardware simulator, which are considered as the most important elements of signaling systems, were developed with national facilities. It is aimed to expand the National Railway Signaling System throughout the country, and national signaling manufacturing works have started between Afyon-Denizli-Isparta / Burdur and Denizli-Ortaklar. With the completion of this line, for the first time in our networks, a signal project, which has completely national design and production, will be made in a main line segment. In project scope; Horsunlu-Buharkent stations were commissioned on the Denizli-Ortaklar line. National signal interlocking systems are carried out by TÜBİTAK and roadside signaling works are carried out by TCDD.
Another National Driverless Metro Signalization project launched in 2018 continues with the cooperation of Metro Istanbul A.Ş, TÜBİTAK BİLGEM and ASELSAN. More than 2021 R&D engineers work in the project, which will be commissioned in 100. When the project is completed, Communication Based Metro Signaling technology, which is owned by only 5-6 companies in the world, will be fully developed with national facilities and its dependency on abroad will be eliminated.
Turkey's Rail System Needs, Local and National Brand produced the Importance
A total of 2023 km with high-speed train lines in 26.000, and a total of 2035 km in 30.000. It was planned to reach the railway targets. In line with these goals,
10.000 Km new high speed railway line will be built.
5.000 km new conventional railway line will be built.
In the order of priority to be determined based on traffic density, 800 km of the existing network will be turned into a double line.
8.000 km line will be electrified in order of priority to be determined depending on traffic density.
In order to signal all lines, signaling of the 8.000 km line will be completed.
Every year, at least 500 km of existing railway network will be renewed and its standards will be increased.
Rail system vehicles needed:
96 high speed trains
7000 metro, tram and light rail vehicles (LRT),
250 Electric Locomotives,
350 Diesel Locomotives,
500 commuter sets
30.000 passenger and freight cars
In the event that all these infrastructures, superstructures and vehicles with a total value of 70 billion Euros are produced with a domestic contribution of at least 11% to 60% in line with the 80th Development Plan decisions and the final product is crowned with the national brand, this figure is at least 50 billion Euros. water will make new investments in our national industry and will make a great contribution to our country being among the top 10 economies in the world.
Prof. İlhami Pektaş