The use of railways in England and then around the world since the 1830s was a revolution for human beings. The mass loads produced by the industrial revolution could reach far distant places by rail, societies were developing not only in economic terms, but also in social and cultural fields, and even railroad became one of the most important elements of gaining superiority in war.
Today, the importance of the railway, which is an environmentally friendly and economic mode of transport, has multiplied. So much so that the 21st century is called the Demiryolu New Railway Age.. Because, railway, safety, energy consumption, environmental contribution, land use, construction and external costs, service life and so on. more advantageous aspects… For example; Km cost of the freeway was approximately $ 12 million, double line, electrical and signaling cost of the railway only $ 4 million, while the operating life of 30 years ... So the 21st century gives its name to rail transport in Turkey has come how some distance from yesterday to today? Here are the milestones of the iron network in Turkey ...
IRON MİLAD: 1856
The history of the railroad in the Ottoman lands began with the concession of the 1851 km Cairo-Alexandria Railway line in 211, and the history of the railways within the national borders of today, with the concession of the 23-km İzmir-Aydın Railway Line on 1856 September 130. Therefore, it is accepted as 1856 milad for Turkish Railway History. British, French and Germans, who were granted a railway concession in the Ottoman Empire, focus on separate regions: France; In Northern Greece, West and South Anatolia and Syria, England; Germany, Romania, Western Anatolia, Iraq and the Persian Gulf; It creates influence areas in Thrace, Central Anatolia and Mesopotamia. Western capitalists build the railway, which is a very important and strategic transportation route with the industrial revolution, to deliver the agricultural products and important mines, the raw materials of the textile industry, to the ports and then to their own countries. Moreover, profit assurance per km, operating mines around 20 km of the railway, etc. By taking concessions, they expand the railway construction. Therefore, the railway lines constructed in the Ottoman lands and the routes it passes are shaped according to the economic and political purposes of these countries.
The lines constructed on the Ottoman soil between 1856-1922 are as follows:
- Rumeli Railways: 2383 km / normal line
- Anatolian-Baghdad Railways: 2424 km / normal line
- İzmir-Town and extension: 695 km / normal line
- İzmir - Aydin and its branches: 610 km / normal line
- Sam-Hama and its extension: 498 km / narrow and normal line
Jaffa-Jerusalem: 86 km / normal line
- Bursa-Mudanya: 42 km / narrow line
Ankara-Yahşihan: 80 km / narrow line
Total 8.619 km
RAILWAY STRATEGIES IN THE REPUBLICAN PERIOD
In the pre-republic period, with the privilege granted to foreign companies, the railways, which were realized under their supervision and served to foreign economies and political interests, are structured in line with national interests in the post-Republic period, with the aim of creating a self-sufficient 'national economy' and aiming to mobilize the country's resources. The distinctive feature of this period is that in the first and second five-year Industrialization Plans prepared in 1932 and 1936, basic industries such as iron-steel, coal and machinery were given priority. Railway investments are emphasized in order to transport such mass loads in the cheapest way. For this reason, railway lines are directed to national resources and guide the determination of the choice of place in the process of expansion of industry to the country. In this period, despite all the negative conditions, railway construction and operation is achieved with national power.
In the early years of our Republic, the love of railroad embraced everyone and despite all the famines and impossibilities, railway construction continued until the Second World War. It slowed down after 1940 because of the war. 1923 km of the 1950 km railway constructed between 3.578 and 3.208 is completed until 1940.
Railway transportation is handled in two stages within the scope of policies to create national economy and to establish young Republic. In the first stage, despite major financial difficulties, railway lines owned by foreign companies are purchased and nationalized and some of them are taken over by agreements.
In the second stage, it is aimed to provide the connection of the Central and Eastern regions with the center and the coast, as most of the existing railway lines are concentrated in the western part of the country. For this purpose, it is provided to reach the production centers of the railway lines directly and obtain the outlines. While 70% of the railways stay in the west of Ankara-Konya direction before the Republic, 78.6% of the roads are laid in the east in the Republican era and as of today, 46% and 54% proportional distribution is obtained in the west and east. In addition, the emphasis is placed on the construction of junction lines that connect the main lines and have a significant share in the spread of the railway to the country level. Thus, the 'tree' shaped railways, created by the semi-colonial economy in the 19th century, are now transformed into the 'looping network' shape required by the national economy.
HOW THE GOLDEN AGE OF THE HIGHWAY STARTED?
The highway is seen as a system that will feed and integrate the railway in transportation policies applied until 1950. However, at a time when highways should be developed in a way to complement and support the railways, the construction of the roads was started by ignoring the railways with the help of Marshall. In the period of planned development after 1960, the targets foreseen for the railways can never be achieved. Although these plans aim to ensure coordination among the transport subsystems, the characteristics of the pre-plan period cannot be maintained and coordination between transport subsystems cannot be achieved and investments in highways retain their weight in all plan periods. Although it is envisaged that all plans will focus on investments, rearrangements and modernization works on railways in order to meet the increasing transportation demands of the industry on time and on time. As a result of these policies, between the years 1950-1980 only an average of 30 km. new line is made.
In the middle of the 1980s, a fast highway construction mobilization started in our country, highways are considered as the third biggest project of our country after GAP and tourism. In this framework, approximately 3 billion dollars of investment is made annually for highways until the mid-1990s. On the other hand, it is seen that no project has been implemented especially on important railway infrastructure investments. Most of the existing railways are doomed to remain in the geometry built at the beginning of the century. In the 2s, while the highway had a 1960% share and the railway had a 50% share, the share of the railway has been below since 30. However, the share of railways in freight transport has declined by 1985% in the last 50 years.
Rebirth of the Railway
For the Turkish railway sector, 2003 represents a rebirth. Railway, government policy again after a 50-year break, while the railroad allocation of 251 million TL was allocated. This figure increased by 2012 times in 16 and reached TL 4,1 billion. As a result of increasing investment allowances; In 9 years, 80 projects were produced within the framework of modernization of the existing system, especially the High Speed Train projects, development of advanced railway industry and restructuring, and railways became one of the most dynamic sectors.
Approximately 50 km of new railway lines have been built in the last 1000 years, while 888 km of new railway lines have been built, including 1.085 km of YHT lines. The existing system was also not neglected and 6.455 km railway line was renewed. Thus, train image and transportation habits have changed with high speed train projects. The existing system was renewed, train speeds were brought back to normal course and service quality was improved.
Block train operation was started in freight transportation. Within this scope, OIZ and freight centers are connected to the main railway and logistics centers are established in 16 locations. In addition, 3.476 level crossings were improved and 530 level crossings were controlled. These studies resulted in a significant reduction in level crossing accidents.
There are also important projects in Turkey's agenda for the development of international rail. One of these, the most important of Turkey, Azerbaijan, Georgia will revive the historic Silk Road in cooperation with the Kars-Tbilisi-Baku Railway Project ... Marmarayl being provided China with continuous rail from London in the first year, 1,5 million passengers annually is aimed at 3 million tonnes of cargo transportation . . There are also projects for the Middle East. Istanbul to Mecca, Medina is intended to go with YHT.
In addition, a fast, safe and comfortable Diesel Train Set system was launched among nearby cities.
URBAN PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION IS STRENGTHENING
Başkentray in Ankara, Marmaray in Istanbul and Egeray Project in İzmir were initiated in cooperation with local administrations in order to develop the rail system in urban public transportation. Egeray's Cumaovası-Aliağa section was put into service. The construction of the line has been started to extend this system, which is suburban operating in the subway standard, to Torbali. Gaziray Project is also being implemented in Gaziantep.
ADVANCED RAILWAY INDUSTRY IS DEVELOPING
Efforts are being made to develop the advanced railway industry in domestic and foreign private sector cooperation. TCDD's subsidiaries; While locomotives and freight wagons were manufactured in TÜLOMSAŞ in Eskişehir, train sets and passenger wagons in Sakarya and TÜVASAŞ, and freight wagons were mainly produced in TÜDEMSAŞ in Sivas, it became competitive in national and international markets.
EUROTEM railway vehicles factory established in Sakarya in cooperation with Korea is currently producing Marmaray sets. In partnership with TCDD, High Speed Train Scissors Factory (VADEMSAŞ) in Çankırı and VOSSLOH / GERMANY established rail fasteners factory in Erzincan. KARDEMİR started to produce rails for YHT lines. In addition to the concrete sleeper factories in Afyon and Sivas, 10 more were established. In collaboration with the Mechanical and Chemical Industry Authority, work is underway to produce railway wheels.
RAILWAY IS FREE
Within the scope of the Demiryolu Restructuring and Strengthening of the Turkish Railway Sector ”project,“ General Railway Framework Law ”and CD TCDD Law Drafts olan were prepared, which will ensure that the legal and structural framework of the Turkish railway sector is established in line with EU legislation.
The rebalancing of the balance in the transportation sector in favor of the railroads, revitalization of the railways and increasing the competitiveness against other types of transportation, primarily depends on increasing the competition within the railway sector… With the draft “General Railway Law”, the sector will be liberated by removing the existing monopoly in railway transportation.
HOW WAS TURKISH RAILWAYS MANAGED?
The Ottoman Railways was led by the Turuk and Meabir (Road and Construction) Department of the Ministry of Public Works (Nafia Ministry of Public Works). On September 24, 1872, the Railways Administration was established to carry out the construction and operation of the railway. After the establishment of the Republic and the decision to nationalize the railways, the 24 General Directorate of Anatolian-Baghdad Railways bağlı affiliated to the Ministry of Public Works of Nafia (Ministry of Public Works) was put into effect with the Law No. 1924 dated 506 May 31 for railway operation. As the first independent management unit in the field of railways, the ve General Directorate of State Railways and Ports ”was established with the Law No. 1927 dated May 1042, 27 to ensure the construction and operation of the railways. The General Directorate of State Railways and Ports was connected to the Ministry of Transportation (Ministry of Transport), which was established on 1939 May 22. July 1953 supplementary budget until the 6186 date was managed as a state administration and on that date, depending on the extracted XNUMX Law No. Department of Transportation "Republic of Turkey State Railways (TCDD)" has been turned into a state owned enterprise under the name.
Finally, with the Decree Law No. 08.06.1984 dated 233, CD Public Economic Organization “and TÜLOMSAŞ, TÜDEMSAŞ and TÜVASAŞ, which has three subsidiaries, is still operating as the related institution of the Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications.
LEADER OF CHANGE HIGH SPEED TRAINS
Undoubtedly, the Ankara-Eskişehir, Ankara-Konya, Eskisehir-Istanbul, Konya, Eskişehir, Ankara-entered service between Istanbul and our country's prestige projects among the high-speed trains, it was a revolution in the name of the terms of the transport of passengers and train operations Turkey. Construction works of Ankara-Sivas, Ankara-Bursa, Ankara-İzmir YHT Projects continue.
Currently, a total of 1.889 kilometers of High Speed Train Line between Ankara-İzmir and Ankara-Sivas is under construction. In addition to the High Speed Train lines, high speed train lines are being built in which freight and passenger transport can be carried out together. Bursa-Bilecik, Konya-Karaman-Nigde-Mersin-Adana, Osmaniye-Gaziantep, ÇerkezköyConstruction works are continuing on the 1.626 kilometer high speed railway line, Kapikule and Sivas-Zara. A total of 429 kilometers of railway construction continues with 3 kilometers of conventional railways. ”
Electrification and signalization studies continue in order to reduce operating costs on lines and provide high capacity safe transportation. It is aimed to increase the line rate of 45 percent in signal and electrical lines to 2023 percent in 77.