Today in History
2 October 1890 Kaymakam Şakir, who went to the Hijaz, said he needed to establish a perfect railway between Jeddah and Arafat.
HICAZ RAILWAY HISTORY
Hejaz Railway, the Ottoman sultan II. Abdulhamid 1900-1908 between Damascus and Medina between the years of railroad was built.
When Sultan Abdülhamit ascended the throne, he brought many changes and innovations in the field of education and training. His next move was to bring and spread the raf Telegraph ına to Turkish territory. An innovative sultan II. Abdulhamid had a great dream in those days, he is a railway between Damascus and Medina.
Why Hicaz Railway was Necessary?
Being an Ottoman sultan at that time meant being the caliph of the Islamic world. II. Abdulhamid, on the other hand, deemed it appropriate to construct a railway to reduce the distance between Istanbul and the Holy Land. Hejaz lands were under the protection of the Ottoman state at that time. The land and power loss experienced by the Ottomans in recent years made the Sultan uneasy. Any attack on the area could be prevented by this railway. In addition, the shipment of troops would be easier and the general security of the region would be provided. Apart from security measures, this railway would have other benefits. At that time, journeys by camel to the Holy Land lasted for days and brought many diseases. The construction of the Hejaz railway would have a very important role at this point, because the journey by camel during the 12 day would be reduced to the 12 hour by rail. In addition, the construction of the railway would contribute to the Arab countries economically and help them grow.
Hicaz Railway Project
Ahmet Izzet Efendi, in the report he presented through the Navy Ministry in 1892, where he served as the director of the Jeddah evacuation, stated many suggestions and important points related to the construction of the Hejaz railway. In the report, the security of the Hejaz region and the Arabian peninsula in general, smoked, the Arabian peninsula, was reminded that the colonialist countries were targeted. He stated that with the opening of the Suez Canal, Europeans could turn to the Arabian Peninsula and destroy the Arabian Peninsula. In addition, this report emphasized that only an offshore defense could be made against an attack from the sea. He stated that the security of the pilgrimage route would increase and the political position of the Ottoman state in the Islamic world would be strengthened. Ahmet İzzet Efendi's report was delivered to the Sultan in 1892. II. Abdulhamid sent the report to Mehmet Sakir Pasha, who was announcing the war, and M. Sakir Pasha stated the technical and political benefits of the railway with a new report.
Sultan II. Abdulhamid Khan approved the project because he thought the construction of the railway would be of great benefit to the Islamic world. But the financial power of the Ottomans was not strong enough to cover the cost of the Hejaz Railway.
Hicaz Railway is being constructed despite economic difficulties
Construction of the Hejaz railway began in Damascus in 1900. German engineer Meissner was responsible for the construction of the railway. But among the engineers working in the construction of the other railway, the Turkish ratio was quite high. The workers consisted of Turks and the people of the region. The construction of the project was thought to correspond to 4 million pounds. The Ottomans soon realized that they could not keep up with the expenditures and they started to find other remedies. The first attempt was made to withdraw credit; however, the European states did not agree to give up as much as 4 million pounds. Then civil servant salaries were interrupted, and official papers and paperwork were sold for the purpose of contributing to the railway. In addition, all the profits from the sale of postcards, stamps and sacrificial skins were spent on the rail. When these were insufficient, the fund of “Hejaz Şimendifer Line an fund, which the sultan personally donated, was created. Together with the sultan, statesmen, bureaucrats, provinces, education, justice and health personnel, as well as the people donated for the construction of railways. The construction of the Hijaz railway was welcomed in all Islamic countries. The Muslim people in this region donated and supported the ongoing railway. Most of the regions outside the territory of the Ottoman state were directed to donations through consulates. Many countries, such as Tunisia, Algeria, South Africa, Iran, Singapore, China, Sudan, Cyprus, Morocco, Egypt, Russia, Indonesia, the United States, the United Kingdom, Vienna, France and the Balkan Countries, have made donations for the construction of the Hejaz Railway. While the Sultan accepted the donations of the non-Muslim citizen in Ottoman subjects, he did not accept the donations of the Jews. It was said that the Sultan did not accept because he did not believe in the sincerity and human feelings of the Jews. Railroad construction reached Amman in 1903 and Maan in 1904. Although the Ottoman Empire wanted to make an additional line from Maan to Aqaba, the British did not allow it. The reason for the British's negative reception was that they wanted to keep the Ottomans away from the Red Sea and the Suez Canal. Then the Ottomans gave up this idea. The subsequent Haifa Railway was completed in 1905. In the same year in 1905 the railway line reached the Mudevvera region. 1 September ic Hicaz Railway Line ”was completed in 1908. The first trip to Medina was held in 27 in August.
Loved Sultan Abdulhamid II of the Muslim World
During the construction of the railway. Abdulhamid people in the holy land and the disturbance of the Prophet. Muhammad (pbuh) 's spirit did not want to be disturbed. For this, he ordered it to be operated by laying felt under the rails. Quiet locomotives were used in the region. The construction of the Hejaz railway has received great interest and appreciation. П. Abdülhamit has received many accolades such as “Yaşı Sultan-ı Alişan, şevket and Şan'ın efzunter”. During the construction of the Hijaz railway, bandits living in these regions opposed the construction of the railway and attacked. During the construction of the Hejaz railway, 2666 bridge and culvert, 7 iron bridge, 9 tunnel, 96 station, 7 pond, 37 water tank, 2 hospital and 3 workshop were made. The total cost of the railway has reached 3,5 million pounds. П. After Abdulhamit was deposed, the administration and the name of the Hejaz Railway were changed. While the real name was id Hamidiye-Hicaz Railways ler, they changed their name to “Hicaz Railways.. 7 January With the Mondros Treaty signed in 1919, the Ottoman Hicaz lost all its dominance in the region. Then the management of the hejaz railway was taken from the hands of the Ottoman state. Fahrettin Pasha managed to bring Bible Relics in Medina to Istanbul. Hejaz Railway 1. It was used extensively until World War II.
Although the Hejaz railway was used for a short period of time, more than half of the world did not spare their help and the unity continued to be built together.