Atatürk and Railways: The first train that brings greetings from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea is the 15 of December. On the morning, he walked from Samsun to Mersin at 6.00 in the morning '. The year was 1932; Samsun Sivas railway had just finished. The Railways magazine, which reported the incident, also included the following lines: “And at 18 of the month, 15 entered Mersin. The locomotives whistled on the horizons of Mersin, and the hot vapors were thrown into the warm waves of the Mediterranean. Ver It gave blood to the veins, and the Mediterranean and the Black Sea came together. ”
In those years, railways became increasingly the backbone of national unity and national economy. Every new station is opened with great festivals; the Assembly and the ruling party from every district demanded that the railway be passed through its settlements. On the one hand, the joy of what is being done is experienced by the nation and on the other hand new ones are expected to be made. Falih Rıfkı (Atay), 26 December 1932 dated Hakimiyeti Milliye newspaper, sel Salute to the Mediterranean. It was now given. Turkey's hats and caps of all 'Erzurum salute' We look forward to the day when the sound off. In the near future, trains that will take greetings from the Mediterranean, Black Sea, Aegean to Erzurum plateaus from every point of the country will depart from several branches. Get good news to you in advance erek.
The railway, which extends to Eastern Anatolia, which is particularly emphasized for economic and political purposes, reached Malatya in the same year and Diyarbakır in 1935. Ergani passed this line, due to the copper mine deposits in the district in those days, 'Copper Road' was nicknamed. And there was the 'Coal Road'. He reached Zonguldak at 1937.
During World War II, coal could hardly be supplied from the quarries in the basin, most of which were owned by a French company, and could be moved with great difficulty for the needs of warships. 20- 25 years later II. Before and during World War II, coal and copper are produced in the facilities established by the new Turkish state and can be transported to all the data of the country by trains. The second line, which traveled from the north to this Eastern Anatolia, reached Erzurum in 1939. Again, great festivals were made; this road was connected to the south in two places, in the north-south direction X 1924'tc 47 thousand tons of wheat, 9 thousand tons of cement, 8 thousand tons of coal were transported by rail, these numbers were the Republic's 10. in the year; 181 thousand, 26 thousand and 33 thousand tons respectively. developments provided great confidence in both management and the public.
Railways are essential for the development of the country
For the development of the country, the products produced and imported could now be transported to each region by trains. II. During World War II the railways constitute a guarantee in terms of both national defense, both in the first year 25 the sağlıyordu.cumhuriyet not continue canlanarak of economic activities, Turkey belongs to foreigners within the boundaries purchased 4 thousand 138 km of railway and 3 thousand 800 km of new road was made. These roads Turkey in the Republic's anniversary, economic and social development of the great benefits sağladı.osmanl during the railways, 'Hijaz Ham', except in accordance with the need for access to new markets and sources of raw materials caused by the industrial revolution in Europe and the only British for this purpose, It was built and operated by French and German companies.
The governments of these states, like the famous 'Baghdad Railway', supported their own companies as a requirement of their eastward policies, entered into great competition among them and exerted political and economic pressure on the Ottoman governments. Thus, the railroad became an instrument of external dependence.
After the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, the remaining railway lines within national borders, far from the state's political and create the required transport infrastructure to strengthen the economy. Therefore, from the early years of the Republic, the necessity to increase and develop the railways emerged; significant progress towards this goal yapıldı.türki to the Grand National Assembly, Mustafa Kemal's presidency in the formation of the first government, in 3 May 1920 in the reading program, the repair of fleeing destroyed their departments are devastated and occupiers after the war, the railways and the laying of the railroad between Sivas and Ankara he was intended.
Coal Or Timber And Sleepers!
During the War of Independence, especially in Western Anatolia by railways, soldiers and ammunition was carried out, the local government units created by the necessary repair work to ensure the continuity of transportation. Since coal could not be found, trains could be moved by burning commercial timber and sleepers in the warehouses, and staff often worked without paying their salaries and wages.
The construction of the first part of the Ankara-Sivas railway until Yahşihan was started immediately. Mustafa Kemal, 1 On March 1923 Melis'tc 4. In his speech opening the year of assembly, despite the difficulties caused by the destruction of enemies and lack of materials, despite the difficulties of our army and the economic life of our country with the remembrance of the services of the Jewish Yahşihan road construction continues, 23 thousand cubic meters of soil excavated, bridges and crossings 1.500 With these numbers, which were very high according to the conditions, he emphasized the size and importance of the work undertaken…
A portion of the first budget of the Republic, prepared for the year 1924, was allocated to railway construction as much as 7, and a law was passed on the construction of Ankara-Sivas and Samsun-Sivas roads in the same year. These roads were foreseen to be built during the year 5 and construction started immediately.
In April of the same year, a general directorate was established under the name of Anadolu General Directorate of Anatolian Railways üzere to operate the existing railways and to make new ones, and it was decided that the Anatolian and Baghdad Railways, the property of the German Company of the same name, would be purchased by the state.
The fact that such important and intense decisions on railways in the first year of the Republic were taken in a short time such as 2-3 month shows that the railroad was given great importance.
Importance of Railway in Republic Period
İsmet İnönü, in his speech at the opening of Sivas Station in 30 August 1930, will explain why the railway issue has been handled with such priority:
Için For the national state, the issue of simendifer is the question of national unity, national defense, national politics and the protection of national independence. Inda Under the conditions of the 1930s, the expected and expected economic benefit from the railway is to ensure and maintain the integrity of the country. The fact that İnönü does not speak of 'economic benefit' shows that the railway breakthrough is directed directly to political and social purposes.
The experiences of Mustafa Kemal and İsmet Pasha, who had experienced the disintegration process of the Ottoman Empire, participated in the Balkan and World War I and led the War of Independence, had a great impact on the formation of a strong railway policy in the early years of the Republic.
In his speech at 1930, İsmet İnönü said, ı If Ankara Erzurum railway was available, it would be doubtful that Europe would enter the Sakarya Expedition. (…) Have you ever calculated how many days a human convoy from Diyarbakır, Van, Erzurum came to Aksehir? (…) The main means of İzmir's wealth and security to be free from any danger is that Sivaslı will have the opportunity to protect İzmir after 24 hours,. example. Another important reason for the intense railway policy in the early years of the Republic was the aim of ensuring the national integrity of the newly established state.
The new capital of the new state was connected to Istanbul, Izmir and Konya only via Eskişehir by rail. Inonu's words, “Ankara is not even in the middle of this country”, but there were bad roads to the east of Kayseri and Sivas and to which only horse-drawn carriages could pass. The country's eastern cities and the state's eastern and southeastern borders did not have fast and continuous access.
Inönü's 1930 speech said, beri Since the day our minds began to melt, we know that this country is at least caught up with the longing of a shimendifer that connects the border with Rumelia to the Anatolian border. It shows that the railroad policy of the Republic in the early years was aimed at the protection of national borders and the consolidation of national unity and integrity.
Together with the social development and economic recovery, along with the security and national integrity functions of railways, which became prominent in the early years, other impacts became important: 1924 percent of 7 budget was allocated to railway construction, while this ratio was allocated to 1928 in 14. rose.
(Source: the Bilelimm)