In the Ottoman Empire, British, French and Germans had separate impacts. France; Northern Greece, Western and Southern Anatolia and Syria, England; Romania, Western Anatolia, Iraq and the Gulf of Basra, Germany; Trakya, Central Anatolia and Mesopotamia have created areas of influence. Western capitalists built the railroad, which is a very important and strategic transportation route with industrial revolution, to transport agricultural products and important mines, which are the raw materials of textile industry, to the ports in the fastest way and then to their countries. Moreover, the profit security per kilometer extended the railway constructions by taking privileges such as the operation of the mines around 20 km of the railway. Therefore, the railroad lines and routes in the Ottoman territories were shaped according to the economic and political objectives of these countries.
History of the Turkish Railway and also the date of the Railway Postal, starts in 1856. The first railway line, the 130 km Izmir - Aydin line, the first digging a British company was given a privilege this year was shot. The choice of this line was not without reason. The İzmir-Aydın region was easily accessible to the raw material required by the British industry, where the population of the population was high in terms of population, the commercial potential was high, the ethnic elements suitable for being the British market lived. It was also of strategic importance in terms of taking control of the Middle East and taking control of Indian roads. Robert Wilkin 11, a merchant and entrepreneur living in Izmir, applied for the concession to the Ottoman government on July 1856 by stating that Joseph Paxton, George Whytes, Augustus William Rixon and William Jackson acted on behalf of him. This application was discussed and examined in the Assembly of Mahsusa. 2 A draft of the contract to be signed with the company on August 1856 has been prepared. 23 In September 1856, this investor was given to the British group with the privilege of building and building the railway with the will.
Picture 1: The monitored envelope is a message that is sent to Bayındır from İzmir by SMYRNA ORC (OTTOMAN RAILWAY COMPANY) which receives İzmir Aydın railway concession.
Picture of 2: Postcard of the opening of Aydın Railway
Some historians consider the British to take the railway concession and begin to build the İzmir-Aydın line as the first entrance of imperialism to the Ottoman Empire.
Another important railway opening and concession granting in İzmir is the same time as the SABRAS KASABA RAILWAY COMPANY (Societé Ottomane du Chemin de Fer Smyrne-Cassaba et Prolongement SCP).
This line has been opened in 1866 and Turgutlu is the name of Town 10 since January 1866.
Picture 3: özel S and CR CASSABA AGENCY POSTAGE PAID CASSABA is a specially imprinted envelope with the stamp of SYMRNE KASABA RAILWAY COMPANY (S & CR).
Picture of 4: Loads transferred from camels to trains at Aydın Railway Station
It was possible to send letters with a postal agent of the Ottoman state, except for the railway company agents that used both privileges. It was enough to tell you that you would like to go to a regular mail center and deliver it quickly by train.
Picture 5: The dulose envelope that the Ottoman postal service stamped with its own stamp. 1874 Envelope with 6 stamp on a bisekt dulose scheduled billet with a penny charge sent to İzmir from İzmir-Aydın railway. The usage date of this stamp is 1868-1892.
Picture 6: 1900 20 money sent by post card, Oval streaked on the 18 stamp stamped with the number of stamped. The usage date of this stamp is 1890-1901.
One of the most important railways in the Ottoman Empire was the European continent:
RUMELI ORIENTAL RAILWAYS (Chemins De Fer Orientaux CO)
After the Crimean war, the Ottoman Empire brought up a railway line project from Istanbul to Europe, which it believed would provide military control of Eastern Europe. Finally, the concession was awarded to Maurice de Hirsch to build the railway. This line will start from Istanbul, Edirne, Plovdiv, Sofia, Nis, Sarajevo Banja Luka'dan side roads will go to Alexandroupolis, Thessaloniki and Belgrade. In 1874 3 began to use separate lines; From Istanbul to Plovdiv, from Thessaloniki to Mitrovica and from Banana Luka to Sarajevo. These lines were not connected. However, 1877 was stopped during the Russian-Turkish war. The Berlin conference decided to establish peace with the Russians in the Balkans. Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria declare independence Bosnia and Herzegovina is connected to Austria. Istanbul conference to discuss the future of the railway line Vienna Austria, Turkey, Bulgaria and Serbia formed a quartet consisting of blocks. This quadruple 1882 gathered in Vienna and signed the agreement in 9 May 1883. Accordingly, 1886 was intended to complete the line in October. The railroad route would be through Belgrade and would be responsible for the work in each government zone. 1885 12 was completed in 1888 in 1 in 1889, although the Bulgarian government took over the Plovdiv-Sofia line. XNUMX In June XNUMX, Orient Express flights between Paris and Istanbul started.
Picture 7: Two 1889 coins with 40 return. Envelope sent to Germany using the British Levant postmark stamp on the British Levant postage stamp and a red Orient Express tag between the two stamps.
The railway line between Skopje and Nis was completed on 25 May 1888. The Thessaloniki line is connected to this line.
8: 1884 1880 1885 20 XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX COPost card stamped with the g (Chemin de Fer Oriental) railway stamp.
Picture 9: In 1901, after the black negative N BUR.AMB SALONIQUE-ZIBEFTCHE anik stamp was sent from Thessaloniki to Krivolak on 1 penny 1901 emission stamp NCOSM ”Envelopes applied to the stamp (Chemin de Fer Oriental Thessaloniki-Monastery). This company has applied this stamp in 1901.
OTTOMAN ANADOLU RAILWAY COMPANY (Societe du Chemin de Fer Ottoman d'Anatolie CFOA)
1871 began construction of a line from Istanbul to Anatolia, from Kadıköy to Pendik. Hat Gebze and later would extend to Izmit. This line was financed by French capital through French Ottoman bank.
10: 1889 20 XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX
As the Sultan wanted to reach the hunting area of Izmit easily, the construction of the line was accelerated. In fact, the crowded area around the line stretched from the shores of Marmara Sea to Anatolia and Mesopotamia. However, the management difficulties of the line led to the transfer to the British Company. After the completion of the narrow line construction until the end of Eskişehir-Ankara extension and difficulties came to the agenda.
Picture 11: 20 is a postcard sent to Istanbul from Eskişehir with a stamp of 1892 emission stamp, sent to Istanbul with a stamp of negative Eskişehir Station and a stamp of Çin CFOA ESKI SCHEHIR UM.
British investors established an Anglo-American cartel under the leadership of Sir Vincent Caillard and with the permission of the head of the Ottoman Public Debt Management. But this cartel did not attract enough capital. Deutsche Bank chairman George Von Siemens showed interest in the project with Alfred Von Kaulla, another banker, who was in Istanbul for arms trading. 8 On October 1888, Concession was given to German capital and construction of the line between Izmit and Ankara was started.
The concession was for the 99 year and later converted into the annual Baghdad Railway Concession. With the concession, the Ottoman Government has guaranteed 114 Frank revenue per kilometer and annually.
EASTERN ANATOLIAN CAUCASUS RAILWAYS DURING THE RUSSIAN BUSINESS
During the 1877 war, Russia gained much land to the west, including the Kars fortress against the Ottomans. Kars; It was considered a strategic fortress to control access to the Caucasus from Anatolia. In line with this, as part of the strategic railway policy, Russia built a line between Kars Tbilisi. This line was extended to Sarikamish, where the de facto border between Russia and the Ottoman Empire was accepted. The railway line proved its worth during World War II: Russia was able to resist the Ottomans who had attacked Sarıkamış through these lines and 16 counter-attacked on February 1916 to win Erzurum. 750mm was built to provide the supply of a wide decovil line Sarikamisha. This line has passed Erzurum about 50 km to the west.
Picture 12: 1914 year Kars Station stamp with Cyrillic alphabet on a postal card sent by a soldier to Russia during the occupation of Kars by Russians.
In 1920, Turkish national forces took back Kars. XnumX December 2 signed with the Treaty of Arzagan River and Araks river border was agreed. Thus, the national forces took control of the 1920mm line. The conditions of transfer of the property of the railway line are not known, but it is possible that the Bolsheviks sympathized with the Turkish national liberation fighters.
Hijaz Railway and the first Turkish and Ottoman railway network project, and from Istanbul to Shama, the holy city of Mecca was wanted to be merged, but the 1 was interrupted by the World War.
Hijaz Railway is one of the most interesting and sad parts of Ottoman history. The line, which was started to be built in 1900, was completed in 1908 and was put into service. There are the following stations of the Hejaz railway between Medina Damascus and 1300 kilometers; Damascus, Deraa, Zerka, Maan, Tebük, Müdevver, Medina Salih, El Ula, and Medina.
The main purpose of the Hejaz Railway; It was to facilitate the connection between the sacred sites of Islam and Mecca, the capital of the Ottoman Empire and the center of the Islamic Caliphate, and to facilitate the pilgrimage. Another important goal was to facilitate the development of economic and political integration of the Arab provinces away from the Ottoman Empire and to facilitate the transportation of military forces in case of need.
Picture 13: 1905 sent to Beirut in 10 XNUMX postage stamp stamped in pure Arabic para DERAA HAMİDİYE HİCAZ RAIL mayan, which is nowhere to be found.
In 1900, the construction of the Hejaz Railway started with the command of Sultan Abdülhamit II and with the support of the Germans. It was built largely by the Turks. An Islam was opened in the world as a joint economic project. The railway would be a foundation, a non-transferable religious donation and aid assurance. Auler Pasha, a military consultant from Istanbul, predicted that Istanbul could send troops from Mecca to 120 every hour. Berlin was also built on the Baghdad Railway. Both railroads were combined with each other and aimed to strengthen the effects of the Empire in the Arab provinces. Another aim was to protect the Hijaz and other Arab provinces from the British occupation.
The Hijaz railway reached the Medina on the anniversary of 1 September 1908 on the anniversary of Abdülhamid's ascent to the throne. In 1913 opened Hicaz Train Station in Damascus center. This is the beginning of the line and the line extends 1300 to Medina.
14: X HİCAZ DEMİRYOLU ÜNİTESİ X stamp on the stamped envelope of the stamped envelope sent to the Hejaz Railway Association in Damascus, Germany.the turkfilateliakademi
- Atadan TUNACI)