Marmaray, Istanbul and Kocaeli in Turkey is a commuter rail system serving the city. Construction of the Marmaray Tunnel under the Bosphorus and on the European side Halkalı and the Gebze on the Anatolian side and extending along the Marmara Sea. Construction started at 2004 and the completion date of the project was announced as April 2009. However, delays occurred due to historical and archaeological finds uncovered during the studies and the first stage of the project 29 was put into service in October 2013. The second stage was completed and 12 Mart came into service at 2019.
Project, immersed tube tunnel (1,4 km), drilling tunnels (total 9,4 km), on-off tunnels (total 2,4 km), three new underground stations, 37 aboveground station (renovation and improvement), new operation control center, sites , workshops, maintenance facilities, a new third line to be built on the ground, and modern railway vehicles for the 440 wagon to be supplied.
History of Marmaray
- The first feasibility study was completed in 1985.
- Studies on feasibility study and re-updating of the route were completed in 1997.
-TB-P15 JBIC loan agreement, 17 was signed on September 1999.
- In the Spring of 2000, the Pre-qualification process of the Consultants started.
-28 On August 2000, proposals were received from Consultants.
- Engineering and Consultancy Services Contract was signed on December 13 with Eurasia Joint Venture.
-15 March 2002 Consultancy Services started.
-25 On July 2002, geotechnical surveys and investigations were initiated.
-23 On September 2002, Bathymetric surveys in Istanbul Strait were initiated.
-2 On December 2002, deep-sea drillings on the Bosphorus were started.
-6 On June 2003, the Tender Documents for BC1 (Rail Tube Tunnel Crossing and Stations) were sent to the Contractors who were prequalified.
-3 On October 2003, BC1 (Rail Tube Tunnel Crossing and Stations) bids were received from the Contractors.
-BC1 (Rail Tube Tunnel Crossing and Stations) 3,3 billion TL, CR1 (Suburban Lines Improvement): 1,042 billion - €, CR2 (Railway Vehicle Supply): 586 million €, Consultancy Service: 264 million TL. The project is financed by the Jica-Japan Bank for International Cooperation, the Council of Europe Development Bank and the European Investment Bank.
- BC2004 (Rail Tube Tunnel Crossing and Stations) Contract in May 1 was signed with TGN Joint Venture.
As of August 2004, the construction sites were delivered to TGN.
- As of October 2004 construction works have started.
- 8 On October 2004, a call for prequalification was made for Contractors regarding the CR1 (Suburban Improvement) contract.
- 1 of € 200 from the European Investment Bank for the CR1 business (Suburban Improvement). tranche loan, Convention A (No: 22.693 TR), 22 entered into force by the decision of the Council of Ministers dated October 2004 and numbered 8052.
- 1 of the Euro Investment Bank from the European Investment Bank for the CR450 (Suburban Improvement) business. tranche loan, Convention B (No: 2 TR), 23.306 entered into force with the decision of the Council of Ministers dated February 20 and numbered 2006.
-CR1 (CR1 Suburban Improvement) job offers were received on 15 February 2006 and the lowest bid was invited to Alstom-Marubeni-Doğuş (AMD) Group contract negotiations.
- EUR 1 million from the European Investment Bank for the CR400 business (Suburban Improvement), Contract CR2 (No: 23.421 TR), 14 entered into force by the Decree of the Council of Ministers dated June 2006 and 10607.
- TBMs (Tunnel Boring Machines) which will perform drilling of Ayrılıkçeşme and Yedikule tunnels related to the work of BC1 (Rail Tube Tunnel Crossing and Stations) 21 started to work with ceremonies on December 2006.
- The first immersed tube tunnel element, which was completed for BC1 (Rail Tube Tunnel Crossing and Stations) work - (E11 element) was placed on the 24 March 2007 in the ditch excavated at the bottom of the Bosphorus.
Within the scope of CR1 (CR1 Suburban Lines Improvement) work, Alstom-Marubeni-Doğuş (AMD) Group delivered the space on 21June 2007.
-BC1 (Rail Tube Tunnel Crossing and Stations) is the last 7 scope. The immersed tube tunnel element (element E5) was placed on the 01 June 2008 into the ditch dug at the bottom of the Bosphorus.
-CR2 (Railway Vehicle Supply) Tender 07 was launched on June 2007 and 12 March 2008 received bids from tenderers.
-CR2 (Railway Vehicle Supply) Tender 10 was concluded on November 2008 and a contract was signed with HYUNDAI ROTEM.
-BC1 (Rail Tube Tunnel Crossing and Stations) Within the scope of work, TBM (Tunnel boring machine), which started to excavate without separation, reached Üsküdar Scissor Tunnel on February 2009.
-4 August At the 2013, Marmaray, whose construction was completed at a rate of 95%, had begun trial runs.
-29 October The first stage was launched at 2013.
-CR3 (Suburban Improvement Project) is being carried out by the Spanish company Obrascon Huarte Lain and the completion date is planned as 2019.
-12 March completed at 2019.
9 May Archaeological excavations have started at 2004. Important historical remains have been excavated with expert archaeologists and under the direction of the Istanbul Archaeological Museums. Underwater research has aroused great excitement all over the world. With the budget of Marmaray, treasures from these centuries were unearthed. During the Marmaray project, the related institutions organized works to minimize the damage to the historical monuments underground. Extensive studies have been conducted on vulnerable areas. Just before the bid phase, an inventory of historic structures along the route was prepared and the compliance position was determined. The project includes Üsküdar, Ayrılıkçeşme and Kadıköy; Historical monuments in Sirkeci, Yenikapı and Yedikule on the European side were unearthed. The city planning directorate of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality will build a museum in Yenikapi with the historical monuments. In the future, Yenikapı will work with museum-station shipwrecks and handmade historical products.
With the approval of the Istanbul Regional Preservation of Cultural and Natural Heritage, the historical buildings on the Yenikapı cut & cover station site have been liquidated and the station will be rebuilt after the construction is completed. In accordance with the protection committee solutions, Kızıltoprak, Bostancı, Feneryolu, Maltepe, Göztepe, Kartal, Erenköy, Yunus and Suadiye stations will be kept in existing places due to their historical characteristics. Among the artifacts found are the 36 ship, harbor, city wall, tunnel, tomb of the king, and footprints of 8.500 years ago. In total, 11.000 findings and artifacts were extracted. The historical artifacts found in the excavations will be exhibited in the Yenikapı Transfer Center and the Archeopark Area, which will be held in the form of a museum-station.
The reason for the delay of the tube passage is the archaeological remains of the Byzantine Empire and the archeological studies carried out in Üsküdar, Sirkeci and Yenikapı regions where 2005 was landed by Europe. As a result of excavations 4. Theodosius Port, the biggest harbor of the city in the 18th century, was unearthed.
The modernization of the existing railways has not been started, although there are no obstacles; Pendik - Gebze section at 2012, Sirkeci - Halkalı and Haydarpaşa - Pendik section were closed for renovation in 2013. 24 has been announced for a period of six months due to delays, and 12 has been put into service at March 2019.
Marmaray, Haydarpaşa-Gebze and Sirkeci-Halkalı the suburban lines were improved and connected with the Marmaray Tunnel. With the completion of the second stage, the 76,6 km-long line serves with the 43 station.
When the construction is completed, the line connected to Marmaray, 1,4 km. (tube tunnel) and 12,2 km. (drilling tunnel) TBM Bosphorus crossing and European side Halkalı- Sirkeci was planned to be approximately 76 km long on the Anatolian side, between Gebze and Haydarpaşa. The railways on different continents were joined by submerged tube tunnels under the Bosphorus. With its 60,46 meter depth, Marmaray has the world's deepest immersed tube tunnel used by rail systems.
Gebze-Ayrılık Fountain and HalkalıThe number of lines between -Kazlıçeşme and 3 is 2.
Projected working hours of the system are as follows;
-City passenger trains
Passenger trains will be able to use a tube tunnel at 06.00-22.00 hour intervals.
Passenger trains between cities
Passenger trains will be able to use a tube tunnel according to their schedule.
- Freight trains
They will be able to use the system at 00.00-05.00 time intervals.
Marmaray has carried the average daily 1.000.000 people for the first year since its opening, despite the use of daily 136.000 passengers. Gebze-Halkalı section is expected to reach the daily target of 1.000.000 passengers. 365 100.000 flights were made in Marmaray during the day and a total of 50 million passengers were transported. 52% of the passengers used the Marmaray line from the European side and 48% from the Anatolian side.
13 March As of 2019, the tariff is as follows:
|Number of stations||Full||reduced||Reduced-2|
|1-7||₺ 2,60||₺ 1,25||₺ 1,85|
|8-14||₺ 3,25||₺ 1,55||₺ 2,30|
|15-21||₺ 3,80||₺ 1,80||₺ 2,70|
|22-28||₺ 4,40||₺ 2,10||₺ 3,15|
|29-35||₺ 5,20||₺ 2,50||₺ 3,70|
|36-43||₺ 5,70||₺ 2,75||₺ 4,00|
There are forty-three stations on the 76,6 kilometer Marmaray line, all of which have disabled access.  Thirty-eight of them are located in Istanbul and five in Kocaeli. West to east respectively Halkalı, Mustafa Kemal, Kucukcekmece, Florya, Florya Aquarium, Yesilkoy, Yesilyurt, Atakoy, Bakirkoy, Yenimahalle, Zeytinburnu, Kazlicesme, Yenikapi, Sirkeci, Uskudar, Separation Fountain, Sogutlucesme, Feneryolu, Goztepe, Erenkoy, Suadiye, Bostanci, Kucukyali, Idealtepe, Sureyya Beach, Maltepe, Cevizli, Ancestors, Virgo, Eagle, Dolphin, Pendik, Kaynarca, Shipyard, Guzelyali, Aydıntepe, İçmeler, Tuzla, Cayirova, Fatih, Osmangazi, Darica and Gebze stations serve. Sirkeci, Üsküdar and Yenikapı stations are underground and other stations are above ground.
From the Ayrılık Fountain, Üsküdar and Yenikapı stations to the Istanbul metro; Kucukcekmece and Sogutlucesme stations to the metrobus, Sirkeci station to tram, Yenikapi station can be transferred to the IDO ferry. The average station range is 1,9 km. Station lengths are at least 225 meters.
In the CR2 Railway Vehicle Manufacturing stage, until the year 2013, a total of 38 wagons of 10 consisting of 12 wagons with 5 wagons and 440 wagons with 50 wagons were imported from South Korea. 586 set consisting of only 5 wagons of the total cost of 12 million dollars, was put into service in 2013 with the commisioning of the suburban section between Ayrılıkçeşme and Kazlıçeşme. system could not be put into service. Sets received in 10 are still kept idle at Haydarpaşa Railway Station.