The Ottoman Empire gave importance to railway projects in spite of the economic difficulties brought by successive wars. Even projects such as Marmaray were also pronounced for the first time in this period. Although the railway projects continued in the first years of the Republic, it has been re-entered into development plans since 1960.
RAILWAYS FROM OTTOMAN TO THE PRESENT
The fact that railway transportation in Europe and America, together with the developing and changing means of transportation, became a rising model was of great importance for the Ottoman Empire in terms of economic, political and military aspects.
For this purpose, the railway in the territory of the Ottoman Empire was first built as 1856 kilometers between İzmir and Aydın at the time of Sultan Abdülmecit. 130 year-long production line was completed during the reign of Sultan Abdülaziz in 10.
The construction of the Haydarpaşa-İzmit line was started with a will from the palace in 1871. The 91 kilometer line was finished in 1873. However, due to financial difficulties, Anatolian railways and Baghdad and Cenup railways were produced with German capital.
9 MAIN LINE CONSTRUCTION
One British company also completed the 98 kilometer part of Manisa-Bandırma line in 1865 with İzmir-Turgutlu -Fyon line. 1896 was awarded to Baron Hirsch in 2. The 336 thousand kilometers of 1888, which is within the national boundaries of the thousand kilometers, was completed in XNUMX, Istanbul-Edirne and Kırklareli-Alpulu section.
There are the main 1856 railway line built during the period of the Ottoman Empire (1922-9). These are:
- Rumeli Railways (2383 km)
- Anatolian Railways (2424 km)
- İzmir -Kasaba (695 km)
- İzmir -Aydın (610 km)
- Damascus-Hama (498 km)
- Jaffa-Jerusalem (86 km)
- Bursa-Mudanya (42 km)
- Ankara-Yahşihan (80 km)
- Total 8.619 km
PRIVILEGES CREATE IMPACT AREAS
In the Ottoman state, the British, French and Germans had different areas of influence. France; Northern Greece, Western and Southern Anatolia and Syria, England; Romania, Western Anatolia, Iraq and the Gulf of Basra, Germany; Trakya, Central Anatolia and Mesopotamia have created areas of influence.
Western capitalists built the railroad, which is a very important and strategic transportation route with industrial revolution, to transport agricultural products and important mines, which are the raw materials of textile industry, to the ports in the fastest way and then to their countries.
THE LARGEST PROJECT OF THE OTTOMAN: HICAZ RAILWAY
The most important railway project of the Ottoman Empire was the Hijaz Railway, the railway network extending from Damascus to Medina.
The construction of Sultan 2. Hijaz Railway 2, which is the continuation of the Baghdad Railway started by Abdulhamid on 1900 May 1, was put into operation in September 1908 with an official ceremony.
31 The Hicaz Railway, which reached the 1908 in 1464 August 1919, has passed 1900 kilometers in total until the XNUMX year in which the Hejaz left the Ottoman Empire.
The start of the project goes back to 1891. Sultan 2. It was aimed to reduce Istanbul-Makkah to 120 hours with the project foreseen by Abdülhamid.
One of the most important features that differentiates the Hejaz railway from other projects was the provision of all expenses from internal sources. The estimated cost of the project was 4 million liras and the 1901 year corresponded to the 18 of the state budget.
ALL WORLD MUSLIMS DONATED
However, the Hejaz railway was a very big and difficult project according to the conditions of the period in which it was built. Due to the very high cost of the construction of the Hejaz railway and the financial hardships of the Ottoman Empire, the aid campaign was initiated for the construction of the line. First aid to Sultan II. Abdul Hamid did and 50 donated a thousand liras. The state and government officials followed.
Mainly in India and Egypt; Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Russia, China, Singapore, Netherlands, South Africa, Cape of Good Hope, Javanese, Sudan, Pretoria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Skopje, Plovdiv, Constanta, Cyprus, Vienna, England, Germany and America donated to.
The 1908 million 1 collected in the 127 year of the construction of the line reached 893 pounds. This amount was the 29 of the total expenditures. 8 1 narrow track rails with 5 centimeter span were used for the laying of the hijaz railway line which was completed in a short time such as XNUMX year.
43 ENGINEER WORKED IN THE PROJECT
Since the railways, which are already available from Istanbul to Damascus, have been installed with wide span rails, Hijaz railway train wagons were preferred only between Damascus and Medina. Technical engineering of the railway was given to German engineer Meissner. He worked in the construction of 17 engineer line, 12 was Turkish, 5 was German, 5 was Italian, 2 was French, 1 was Austrian, 1 was from Belgium and 43 was from Rum.
1 On September 1906, the next construction of the line which reached Medâyin-i Sâlih was carried out by Muslim engineers. However, during the construction of the Hejaz railway, it was the scene of many suffering.
This railway, which provided great benefits for the Ottoman Empire and the region, was subjected to constant attacks and sabotages during and after construction. As a result of these attacks and sabotage to the railway line, many Ottoman soldiers were killed.
The Ottoman Empire struggled to prevent interruption in transportation.
In particular, the attacks started in World War I continued to rise until the fall of Medina.
MARMARAY IS THE DREAM OF ABDÜLMECİT
The first idea about a railway tunnel under the Bosphorus was brought up by Sultan Abdulmecit in 1860.
The project was planned as a tunnel over the columns built on the seabed. This idea was further evaluated in the following period and a design was developed in 1902. This design envisions a railway tunnel passing under the Bosphorus, but in the design, a tunnel over the seabed was mentioned. However, the project could not be realized because the empire was in constant state of war. The project came to the agenda again in 1980 but in 2004 the project was signed and implemented in October 2013.
RAILWAY POLICIES IN THE REPUBLICAN PERIOD
The railway project launched in the first years of the Republic after the Ottoman Empire did not fully reach the targets imagined under the conditions of the period.
With the nationalization of the railroads that started at 1923, new lines started to be made. Anatolia in 1923 years 4 reputation and 559 thousand km of railway line reached until the year 1940 8 637 thousand kilometers with the work performed.
1932 and 1936 prepared in 1. and 2. five-year industrialization plans were given priority to basic industries such as iron-steel, coal and machinery. The steps taken have served the purpose of carrying loads rather than facilitating transportation.
PRODUCTION CENTERS HAVE BEEN CONNECTED TO THE PORTS
The railway reached Ergani, the iron that reached the Ereğli coal basin, and the Adana and Çetinkaya lines were named as cotton and iron lines. Production and consumption centers, ie ports and inter-regional relations were established.
The ports which reach the railway with Kalın-Samsun, Irmak-Zonguldak lines were upgraded from 6 to 8. Samsun and Zonguldak lines and inner and eastern Anatolia's sea connection was reinforced. 1927'da Kayseri, 1930'da Sivas, 1931'de Malatya, 1933'de Niğde, 1934 Elazığ, 1935 Diyarbakır, 1939'de Erzurum rail network was connected.
1960'S PASSED THE GRAINS FOR YEARS
Between 1940 and 2000, the importance given to highway and automotive industry was not given to railway projects. Between 1960 and 1997, ie the 37 year, railroad length increased by only 11.
1940-1950 in terms of railways in Turkey between the years of "stagnation era" has been called. Because the first World War, including the policies carried out in Turkey xnumx't was brought to a halt after the railway construction.
The 1923 km of the 1960 km railway between 3.578-3.208 is completed by 1940. After the War of Independence, an average 240 km long railway was built.
1960'S SECOND PLANS IN YEARS
Especially in the beginning of the 1960 year, only 39 km railway could be built in the year despite the developing technology and material possibilities. The main reason why the railroads were laid down was that the transportation policy of the state had changed. Between 1960-1997, the rail length increased by 11%.
The shares of investment in transportation sectors are; 1960 highway in the 50, 30 as the rail divided. Railways, existing infrastructure and operating conditions have not been improved and new corridors can not be opened because of the share of passenger transportation in these years fell by 38 percent. This situation is similar to the beginning of the 2000'li until the same year.
RAILING SYSTEM IN 2000
As for the 2000 years, the rail system was also focused on the motorways. Significant breakthroughs were made in both the length and the capacity and technology of the railway.
For years, the investment made in the last decade and hence significant investments in the length of railway lines can not reach the desired level of rail use was made in Turkey.
In the last 10 year, the total length of the line in the 2001 was 10 thousand 917 kilometers. According to the TCDD data, the number of 2001 million 7 thousand in 561 is 2010.
10 million 282 thousand of this number was domestic, and the 1 million 18 thousand was also international. At the end of 2001, this number was 14 thousand 618 tons, while 2010 was 24 tons in 355. The amount of international transport by rail between 2001-2009 has also increased around 154 on a tonne basis. 2001 900 2012 2,5 XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX
2023 BILLION DOLLAR INVESTMENT UP TO 45
With the developments in the automotive sector and the increase of the highways after the 1950 years, the railway transportation was a bit secondary. However, the investment in railways in Turkey's 2023 year targets and new projects, holds an important place. 2023 45 billion dollars until the investment in the projects are required to find the investment.
Railways modernization and new railway projects, turned the attention of international investors in this field in Turkey. 2023 is planning to invest $ 1 billion in 45 railway projects.
According to the 2023 year transport master plan strategy, the passenger transport market share is expected to reach 15 and the freight transport to 20 when the railway projects and logistics villages are completed.
PRIORITY LINES ARE DETERMINED
Lines of investment priorities in the report of the Republic of Turkey State Railways 2023 strategy; Ankara-İstanbul, Tekirdağ-Muratlı, Arifiye-Çerkezköy, Ankara-Sivas, Ankara-Konya, Adapazari-Zonguldak, Zonguldak-Karadeniz Ereglisi, Ankara-Afyon, Isparta-Antalya, Trabzon-Tirebolu and Diyarbakir.
It was also noted that new ferries should be built for the Van lake pass. Another important issue in the report was that priority should be given to freight transport. It was also noted that there was a need for legal arrangements for the restructuring of the railway system.
DOMESTIC PRODUCTION IN RAILWAYS
TÜLOMSAŞ in Eskişehir needs of locomotive and private freight wagons of state railways; passenger car and diesel train set need TUVASAŞ in Adapazarı; TUDEMSAŞ partnerships in Sivas meet the need for freight wagons.
However, domestic production is not enough to meet half the demand. Staff training, R & D activities and speeding up investments should speed up activities to reverse this situation.