In the first years of the Republic, a national and independent railroad policy was pursued on the basis of development and defense.
In the first years of the Republic, a national and independent railroad policy was pursued on the basis of development and defense. 240 mileage a year on average in large impossibilities 1950'in 40'den technology and material, despite the only XNUMX mileage was made
The process of technological innovations, which started with the industrial revolution, also brought the rapid transportation of goods and people to the agenda. In order to transport the produced goods to the ports and from there to other land parts, 10 thousand kilometers of railway were built in a short period of 115 years. In the USA, the most powerful tool for immigrants to reach new lands from east to west, and in this context, to occupy the lands of indigenous peoples, has been the railway. Similar developments were experienced in Europe as well as in the USA, and the transportation of people and goods increased day by day by making railroads one after the other. In the context of Russia, the most important reason for the construction of the Trans-Siberian line is to reach Siberia's very rich underground and aboveground riches. Likewise, with the extension of the TransCaucasus railway to Central Asia after being built as a "Military Tactical Railway", it became a "Strategic Railway". kazanIt has been a tool for the exploitation of the underground and aboveground riches of Central Asia. DR Headrich and P. Mentzel can be mentioned at the beginning of those who made a connection between the railways and imperialism. Mentzel introduced the concept of 'Railway Imperialism' in this context.
Geopolitics, which can be defined as the use of geography to open up a field of political action to the state, is a discipline that applies to domestic politics as it is in foreign policy. In this context, the organization and organization of the interior space is the area of interest of geopolitics. The construction of TransSiberian and Pacific Railways in the United States in Russia is a domestic political measure with a geopolitical motivation for the state and the nation, and a part of the territory of the state in those regions and its people on it. In 1832, the former General of Napolion M. Lamarque considered the use of the railway for military purposes as valuable.
The Ottoman authorities did not take the importance of the rapidly developing railways in Europe and the world until the Crimean War. The action of turning the Ottoman country into a market for the great powers of Europe with the 1856 Line Hümayunu was bound to certain legal rules. However, the idea that there was a close connection between the development of railways and the increase of foreign intervention in the Crimean War due to the lack of railroads and the criticism from the European allies had the minds of all Ottoman statesmen. Fuat Pasha, yap foreign capital income, railways and operates. But I will protect the rights of this capital, and then comes his state and political power. Ama But without the railroad, the possibilities of maintaining the Empire disappeared.
Germany 'Weltpolitik', the core of the policy of the expansion and development of the economy of the imperial policy, created the Baghdad Railway Project. Again in Baghdad Railroad was carried out in Missionary style works and it was wanted to transfer culture through railway. For the area of exploitation to be established, schools are planned to be opened on the railway route and surrounding cities and to be settled with German colonies. The other means of penetration for exploitation was the opening of hospitals and orphanages in addition to schools on the railway route. In the meantime, foreign companies that built railroads during the time of Abdülhamit, the location of the railroad is given the concession rights, the Ankara-Istanbul Railway, to benefit from the maximum extent of the mine, consciously extended to 725 km, should be noted.
RAILWAY OF THE REPUBLICAN PERIOD
National Struggle of the Republic of Turkey as an independent state, had the power to determine rail policy in an appropriate manner. A national and independent railway policy was followed according to the needs of development and defense based on the realities of the country, not the external pressures as in the Ottoman period. 22 April 1924'da adopted, 'Anatolian Railways of the General Directorate of Rail and Railways General Directorate of Organization and Organization of the Law on the Mü and the Turkish railways 1923-1940 of the Anatolian line between the golden age. 1923 4 thousand kilometers by rail as of 559 years, reaching up to 1940 8 years 637 thousand kilometers. 1940-1950 is the 'recession period'. From the 1950 to the present, only the 2 thousand kilometers have been built around the new road. After the War of Independence, an average of 240 kilometers of railroads were built annually, while only 1950 miles were built annually despite the technology and financial resources that developed after 40.
CHANGES IN TRANSPORTATION POLICY
Steam locomotive comes with Turkey and showing a great improvement of rail transport to be taken back to 1940 years rationale underlying the plan after that date is not changed, the state's transportation policy. In the 1948 prepared by the US and 'Hilts Raporu'a report was issued, roads that need to be shifted from road to rail and road transportation construction in Turkey foresees the creation of the Directorate General. The report also emphasized that the General Directorate of Roads should be established independently from the Ministry of Transportation. The report, which contains data completely against our country and which leads to addiction, expensive and irregularity in transportation, has been enacted.
Mustafa Kemal 's efforts to nationalize the railway, "If you succeed in carrying the army to the front, I know what to do fronts very well," he gave him the liberation of the war successfully completed the logistics of his house, the house by the British, Damat Ferit government, wanted to be driven to Malta, more then, Behiç Bey, who was ordered to be executed for man and weapons kidnapping activities, was brought to Anatolia.
THE AWARENESS OF THE BIRD
We wrote our article in Eskişehir, born in 1911. kazanLet's end with the words of Sabri Usta, who contributed to the construction of miniature trains, with the words of the Ottoman railroad, which started as a backup of the "concession and exploitation" policies shaped by the imperialist West's design of acquiring "zones of influence" and then settling in these areas, which we can call the summary history of the nationalist Republican railroad, "Steam. kazanI this lord! It doesn't have Grup (Krupp) written on it, it doesn't write Tüsen (Thyssen), it says cer!” (From Toy Locomotive). Cer meant "force", it meant independence; It meant a republic in the eyes and consciousness of that generation.'
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