In the world and Turkey Metro: Typically population density is more established in large cities and the city center is rapidly connecting stops and underground electric rail transport to the suburbs. The fact that there is a road outside of the city traffic and that it moves on the double line allows the use of a large number of wagons in the subway and a high speed. The metro can be managed with very few staff.
The first subway in the world was established in London. This metro, which was opened to operation in 1863, now carries eight million passengers a day. The Paris metro, which opened in 1900, now carries more than five million passengers a day. Other cities with metro in Europe; Budapest (1896), Berlin (1882), Leningrad (1912), Moscow (1915), Stockholm (1935), Vienna (1950), Madrid (1898), Madrid (1919), Barcelona (1923), Lisbon (1955), Milan (1959).
In the year of 1868, the Newyork metro, which was opened by air lines passing over the street, was transformed into underground lines in 1904. Other cities with US subways, Chicago (1892), Philedelphia (1907), Boston (1901), Toronto (1921).
In Japan, the Tokyo 1927 and Osaka 1933, Argentina in Buenos Aires 1911'da has gained the metro. The air lines of the metros will be at least 6 meters above the ground. The roof is made of metal or reinforced concrete. It is based on strong supports to the soil. Two systems are applied in underground lines. In the first, the galleries where the lines will pass are just below the street level at the depth of 6-8 and the other one is below the 35-40 meter. Metros made by the first method are cheaper. Because of this, the excavation of the galleries is started by trenching the street level deeper into the trench, and a reinforced concrete wall is built on both sides of the ditch. In this way, a rectangular prism is closed and the street is closed again after the end of the gallery. The major drawback of this method is that it follows the street plan, so it is long, recessed and protruding. Although the excavation is made at mid-depth like the 6-8 meter, the walls are elliptical in double-line galleries. In deep networks, lines do not follow the plan of the streets; Thus, the path between the two points from one to the other will be very short. The galleries in these networks were carved round. One line passes through them. These galleries, which are a circle between the section diameter 3,5-4,5 m, are furnished with steel rings. Recently, however, these steel rings have been replaced by a prefabricated concrete interlocking system.
The rail opening is standard in almost all (1435 mm). There are no double lines in deep galleries. Two galleries can be found, which run side-by-side and operate trains in one direction. Deviations, rotations are only at the station points. The lines never cross. Stations are carried out by expanding the galleries in the underground networks and installing a platform roof in the air networks. Stations are available with 100-160 meters. Passengers are often brought to the streets by escalators. The trains are the same as the electric trains. It is mostly double oriented. The number and format of the wagons varies depending on the network. Metro tracks can make 90-100 miles per hour, but not 60 km. In one direction, the average 20 string moves per hour. However, as in London subway, it can be reached up to 40 times per hour.
World's Best Metro Tracks
- Newyork arab America: Very few people have a car in New York. Finding parking is something like looking for gold on the road, but also the time is very small. The 1904 station with 28 station in 462 now has 4.9 station and carries 365 million per day. Also this metro is open on 7 day 24 / XNUMX hours of the year.
- London ud England: The London subway is the world's largest and oldest metro. Built in 1863, the metro now has a total of 405 stations on the 268 km line. 976 million people a day to go somewhere in London uses this subway.
- Paris X France: Paris Metro is the world's oldest 2. One of the subways. It is possible to reach every point of Paris by metro. With the 214 km line and the 380 station, it is the best metro to be covered as you only need to walk 500 meters when you land on a station. 4 million people a day are transported by this subway.
Moscow: The Moscow metro, known as the world's most punctual metro system, carries over 8.2 million people on an average working day. The Moscow Metro has an 290 station on the 172 line. While a large part of this subway runs under the ground, a small part of it goes on the bridge and continues to fascinate people with views of both Moscow and the Yauza River.
Montreal i Canada: The Montreal Metro was first built in 1966. The 60 km long and 68 station is considered one of the best subways in the world with its modern structure, although it is not one of the longest in the world. 835.000 carries the person every day.
Madrid ur Spain: Madrid metro is 2.ci of Europe and 6.ci is the largest metro of the world. The Madrid metro was first opened in 1919 by 3,3 and 8 stations in 231 and then increased to 1.8 station. The Madrid metro is one of the busiest metros in the world, which XNUMX uses over a million people a day.
Tokyo: Tokyo's public transport system is excellent. 10.6 million people per day in this country use public transport, 7.7 million people a day on the subway. There is a total 287 metro station in Tokyo. Each station has both English and Japanese announcements.
Seoul is South Korea: Seoul metro is one of the most crowded cities in the world. This metro uses about 8 million people a day. It is one of the longest metro stations in the world with its 287 km line. Even though most of the train goes underground,% 30 goes over the ground.
Beijing tır China: Beijing metro was built in 1969. Thanks to this metro, the Chinese can easily visit the cities within and outside Beijing. Before the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, the 7.69 was invested in a billion USD and the current metro station was launched in an area of 480 km. 3.4 million people a day, this metro is used as the most crowded metro in China.
Hong Kong: Although the metro system in Hong Kong is a very short distance from other cities (90 km), around 3.8 million people use this metro a day. In this order, 9 is one of the most popular people in the world. The country is. This metro was built by the British in 1979.
Current Situation in Turkey
A total of 1908 metro and LRT vehicles were sold to our country and 2013 million passengers were planned to be transported by the end of 2.5. 2023 metro and LRT light rail transportation vehicles are needed until 7000. Until the 2023 2 in the country, which will increase the number of railways in our country; 26 will also provide high-speed train lines for one thousand kilometers of 10 thousand km of railways across the country. In 2023, the number of passengers per day in urban rail transport systems will increase to 4.1 million and cargo transportation will be 200 million tons / year. In 2004, the passenger transport rate of% 3 will be increased by 2023 in 10 and the freight transport rate will be increased from 5.5 to 15.