Will Kanal Istanbul be Istanbul's environmental insurance?

Does Canal Istanbul become the environmental insurance of Istanbul: The strategic importance of the Turkish Straits system, which consists of the Istanbul and Çanakkale Straits and the Marmara Sea, as the only waterway connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean is indisputable. Turkish Straits, as well as our country, are crucial for the economy and military security of the countries riparian to the Black Sea. The Straits is the main trade route that connects the Black Sea countries to the world markets.
In addition to its strategic importance, the Turkish Straits have many other characteristics that are unique in the world. First, the Bosphorus is one of the cities of Istanbul, which has been declared as the “cultural heritage of the world” by UNESCO, a metropolis with a history of 3000 years and a population of over 12 million. It passes through the most historical places of the city by curling. The mansions built on the shores of the Ottoman period are among the most outstanding examples of the Bosphorus architecture and also make the Bosphorus unique. Today, the vast majority of the residences still retain their old case, both the city of Istanbul, both are among the most expensive real estate in Turkey. The best known of the Bosphorus mansions are Hasip Pasha Mansion, Muhunuzade Mansion, Ahmet Fethi Pasha Mansion, Tophane Client Zeki Pasha Mansion, Cypriot Mansion, Tahsin Bey Mansion, Count Ostrorog Mansion, Şehzade Burhaneddin Efendi Mansion, Elegant Mustafa Pasha Mansion and Nuri Pasha Mansion.
Also; Many magnificent palaces were built in the Bosphorus during the Ottoman period. Dolmabahçe Palace, Çırağan Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace, Küçüksu Pavilion, Beykoz Pavilion are Adile Sultan Pavilion. Historical buildings such as Galatasaray University, Egyptian Consulate and Sakıp Sabancı Museum are other well-known architectural examples of Bosphorus.
It is the gateway to the Mediterranean from the Black Sea to the Bosphorus. As it is a natural water way that separates Asia and Europe, it has a strategic importance from ancient times.
The width of the Bosphorus, the length of which is 29,9 km, is 4.7 km at the entrance of the Black Sea and 2.5 km at the entrance to the Marmara Sea.
In addition to the physical, oceanographic and meteorological safety constraints, the Bosphorus Strait has four floors of the Panama Canal and three times the density of the Suez Canal.
Although it is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, the Bosphorus, 45 degrees in front of Kandilli, and 80 with 12 sharpness in Yeniköy and 7-8 with its complex flows up to XNUMX-XNUMX km per hour have been emphasized in terms of geomorphology and hydrography. It is a region that needs to be stopped. In other words, it has a very narrow and curved structure.
When the underwater topography of the Bosphorus is examined, it is seen that it is filled with many pits and benches (shallows). In the North-South direction, the 50 meter isobath (coherence curve) that crosses the Strait forms a trough. Sudden deepening and pitting are observed in the areas where the strait is narrowed.
Different types of salinity, temperature etc. such as Bosphorus, Black Sea and Mediterranean in terms of marine environment due to combining the two seas with conditions; It has very special ecological conditions in terms of air masses and plant and animal diversity and terrestrial environment.
The most important oceanographic factor of the Bosphorus is discharge. Other oceanographic factors such as waves, tides and tides are not effective on the sea traffic in the Bosphorus. Physical structure of the throat (narrow and folded) increases the importance of currents. In the Strait of Istanbul, as in other Straits, precipitation-evaporation and the effects of streams are developed under hydrological conditions. In the Bosphorus, the current intensity is dependent on the inputs to the Black Sea through precipitation and rivers.
The normal current from the Black Sea to Marmara can return from Marmara to the Black Sea under severe winds of lodos. This current, called “orkoz” locally, makes it difficult to maneuver and navigate ships.
From the Black Sea to the Sea of ​​Marmara flows into the sea flowing into the whirlpool turns vortex and near the coast of the Sea of ​​Marmara to the Black Sea is a bottom current flowing. The depth of this bottom stream from the sea surface varies depending on location and conditions. In some places and conditions the sea surface can be found below the 10 shaft. For this reason, the bottom flow has a negative effect on the course and maneuvering of large tonnage vessels with high water draft.
The Black Sea is a closed sea and water renewal is only through the Bosphorus. The Straits are also an important biological corridor between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Depending on the season, there are aquaculture migrations from Marmara to the Black Sea and from Black Sea to Marmara.
The Black Sea connects to Marmara via the Bosporus and the Mediterranean through the Dardanelles and the Aegean Sea. Due to the abundant precipitation, less evaporation and excess of terrestrial fresh water inputs, the water budget in the Black Sea always shows an excess of water, so surface waters flow to the Marmara Sea via the Bosphorus. The reverse flow system in the Bosphorus carries the salty waters of the Mediterranean to the bottom of the Black Sea. When looking at the general flow systems, it is seen that there is a large-scale cyclonic (anti-clockwise) cycle surrounding the entire Black Sea along the coast.
The adjacent or interconnected seas are under the influence of each other's hydrological characteristics through meteorological conditions, surface and bottom flows. The physical and chemical changes in any of the seas are reflected in the other seas. 548 km3 water passes from the Black Sea to the Marmara Sea in the year, whereas 249 km3 water passes from the Marmara Sea to the Black Sea.
This shows that the pollution in the Black Sea affects the Marmara more than the impact of the Marmara on the Black Sea.
According to the 1936 Montreux Straits Convention in the Bosphorus, which is the world's most risky natural narrow waterway, there is no obligation to use pilots and tugboats, which poses a separate risk. The Bosphorus is one of the most difficult waterways in the world in terms of cruising with its physical features. Strong currents, sharp turns and variable weather conditions in the straits make navigation extremely difficult. In other words, it is the most difficult and dangerous waterway in the world in terms of navigation. However, ship traffic in the Bosphorus is very intense. An average of 50.000 ships pass annually and more than 10.000 of the passing ships are vessels carrying oil and petroleum-derived substances. The amount of cargo transported from the Turkish Straits exceeds an average of 360 million tons per year. 143 million tons of this amount is under dangerous cargo.
High traffic density,
Dangerous cargo transportation,
Increasing ship lengths,
Complex traffic structure,
Power air, sea, current and climatic conditions,
Precise environmental conditions,
Local hazards,
Other maritime activities affecting ship traffic,
Marine accidents showing rise,
Narrow water passages limiting the progress of ships,
Because of the above mentioned issues, the Bosphorus Strait is the highest risk of accident compared to coastal and inland waters of the other Straits of the world. Therefore, significant marine accidents have occurred in the past, as well as serious environmental damage as well as loss of life. The most important marine accidents;
-14.12.1960 In the Bosporus in front of the Istinye Peter Verovitz (Yugoslav) and World Harmony (Greek) two tankers collided. As a result of the explosive tankers, a terrible fire broke out and tons of oil poured into the sea. 20 killed in the accident
- Fuel spilled into the sea as a result of the collision of 01.03.1966 Russian ships in 2 was ignited and Kadıköy pier and Kadıköy the steamer was burnt. Soviet flag Lutsk and Kransky collided, thousands of tons of oil spread over the sea.
- On 15.11.1979, the Greek tanker Evrialı collided with the Romanian flagged Independenta tanker Haydarpaşa. 95 thousand tons of oil was poured into the Bosphorus. 43 people died in the exploding Independenta tanker. The fire lasted 2 months.
-14 on March 1994 Greek tankers collided with Nassia and Sea Broker. 27 dead. 10.000 tone crude oil burned
-29.12.1999 on the Russian Volgoneft-248, stranded with lodos, divided into two. 1600 tons of fuel-oil seawater has been flooded by many sea creatures and birds.
The events in the Bosphorus show that the effects of accidents that may occur in the Bosphorus; The consequences such as large scale environmental pollution, big fires, mass deaths, and the complete disappearance of sea creatures may occur, as well as the fact that four of our seas are “closed seas” and the time of water renewal is longer, the residence time of the wastes entering the sea is longer. It will not get rid of these effects for a long time.
Also; Considering the history of Istanbul, it is not possible to guess what the damages that accidents may occur to historical artifacts. A historical treasure such as Istanbul and its cultural heritage will suffer greatly. Artifacts, which are cultural heritage of humanity, will be destroyed and a history is in danger of being erased.
In order to make the Bosphorus secure, it is important to implement the Kanal Istanbul Project. “Çanakkale and the Bosphorus are natural canals; are channels that were formed thousands of years ago. Apart from that, there are also channels for making. Panama is like the Suez Canal. These are projects that have been considered and implemented in order to reduce costs and save time with the development of global trade. Kanal Istanbul is an artificial waterway between the Black Sea and the Marmara Sea in order to relieve ship traffic in the Bosphorus, which is currently an alternative gateway between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean… All freight traffic will continue from north to south without a stop in the Bosphorus.
According to the statements, Kanal Istanbul, officially, will be launched on the European Side of the city. An artificial waterway will be opened between the Black Sea and the Marmara Sea in order to relieve the ship traffic in the Bosporus, which is currently an alternative gateway between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. At the point where the canal meets the Sea of ​​Marmara, one of the two new cities planned to be established by 2023 will be established. The length of the channel is 40-45 km; its width will be 145-150 m at the surface and approximately 125 m at the base. The depth of the water will be 25 m. With this channel, the Bosphorus will be closed to tanker traffic completely, two new peninsulas and a new island will be created in Istanbul.
With the Kanal Istanbul Project, the survival of Istanbul, the world's foremost history, culture and trade city, will increase both commercial and tourism activities. The Istanbul Canal can be said to be: The Istanbul Canal is thought to save the Bosphorus from the tanker traffic.
A channel that will be built in Istanbul will save the Bosporus and the local people of historical and natural value from the great danger they face every day. Thanks to Kanal Istanbul, 10 thousand tankers in the equivalent of nuclear bombs passing through the Bosphorus will pass through here and the danger will disappear.



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