From 1950 to Present World Railway Policy and Its Impact on Turkey: Looking at the last 10 years, in Turkey, in his studies related to railways and urban rail system seems to show an increase. In parallel with this increase, the general perception that is tried to be created in the society, especially our managers, is that "there is no nail in the railways after 1950, and now the investment is made in the railways thanks to the current management". Politicians, without mentioning the advertising aspect, in the period from 1950 until today, the railway policy, which is common throughout the world and these policies also need to understand the repercussions in Turkey. Then you have to ask the question right away. Immediately behind the 1950 period, as a result of Turkey's policy of non-dependent or general worldview, it stated that the interest in railways reduced. So, by looking at the developments in the world, can the developments in the rail direction in the last 10 years be the result of foreign-dependent policies or the changing world view, rather than just our own initiative?
For a clearer understanding, it is necessary to take a look at the world view after 1950 and the ground that prepared this view.
During World War II, the war kazanThe technical developments made in the name of the war would make its weight felt in the post-war period as well. These developments; Discovery and adaptation of jet engines to aircraft - Discovery and development of rockets - To obtain great energy by splitting the atom - Development of aircraft that can fly at longer ranges - Perhaps most importantly, the development of mass production techniques for the immediate replacement of war-damaged land and aircraft. It can be sorted simply. The development of mass production techniques would allow more land and air vehicles to be produced with cheaper methods, and this would pave the way for the formation of new ideas and understandings in the direction of transportation. After the war, while Europe and Japan were trying to heal their wounds, the USA, which had never experienced war in its own lands and had a very vigorous industry with the technology and mass production techniques it developed to produce war machines, kazanHe was going to make a move to reap the “fruits” of the war he was fighting. However, for this move, he had to make a "promotion" in today's terms. We will know this promotional business as “Marshall Aids”. European giants such as England, Germany and France are among the countries receiving Marshall aid. However, as the deep-rooted industrial cultures that emerged from the industrial revolution led these countries to recover in a short time and revitalize their own industries, it was not possible to say this for Turkey.
Change of Transportation Concept After 1950:
With the help of Marshall, the USA introduced its products to almost every part of the world and then started to take the necessary steps for sales and marketing. This way of thinking was the distant footsteps of a new economic understanding, capitalism, that would affect the world, especially Europe. Mass production techniques and new technologies developed, especially in the USA, aimed to produce more goods and to market these goods to the world, which would lead to the most obvious change in the understanding of transportation. With serial and inexpensive production techniques, there was no need to be as many "elite" as before to buy cars. In addition, instead of living in apartments in city centers, the culture of living outside the center, suburbs, cute, detached houses was getting more and more widespread. “Low-income” people, who can buy cars, like the reduced copies of villas or estates of the “elite” outside the city, were also going into this type of life. Somehow, there was a car, and it was possible to go from home, to the city center, or anywhere, at any time. The situation had changed within the industrialist. He was able to transport the raw material he needed or the goods he produced, at any time, by trucks. It was not necessary to set up a factory on the edge of the railway or take a railway line to the established factory and wait for the trains. Except for heavy or large loads, the train was not needed as much as before. Transportation from social life to industry and door to door would affect the whole world. In response to this demand, the motorways, which were easier to construct than the railroad at that time, would begin to wrap everywhere. “Who waits for the train? If you have a car, go wherever you want whenever you want. Be free…"
“Automobile is freedom. Flying closes the distant ”
These and similar advertising slogans were the beginning of a new understanding in transportation. Not only the highway, but also the developments in the airline are factors that affect the understanding of transportation. In line with this increase, airline companies operating at medium and long distances started to open with the serial production techniques and technologies developed. The increase in transatlantic flights would bring the end of their transatlantic journeys to the end point of long-distance rail passenger transportation, especially in the USA, in 1969. Although it was more expensive to fly, it saved a lot of time.
World Railways Change After 1950 Begins:
Changes to better understand their reflections in Turkey and then on to mention ineffective until better exchange, the US and Europe, needs to be evaluated at two different points.
In the USA, the regression of the railroad begins from the beginning of World War II. In the post-war period, increasing road and air transport has greatly affected passenger transport, especially long-distance passenger transport, and many railroad companies have gone bankrupt, starting with 2, with freight transport. The bankruptcy of the Penn Central company in 1967 would have been the largest bankruptcy in US history until that time. Railway companies that went bankrupt:
- New Jersey Central Railroad 1967
- Penn Central 1970
- Ann Arbor Railroad 1973
- Erie Lackawanna Railway 1972
- Lehigh Valley Railroad 1970
- Reading Company 1971
Leigh and Hudson Rivere Railroad 1972
In 1969, long-distance passenger transport will come to the end, in 1970 the Congress will take over this situation and issue the Railway Passenger Service Act. Immediately after this law, Amtrak, a state-owned company for long-distance passenger transportation, was to start its operations in 1971.
The period between 1970-1980 was to go down in history as the turbulent period of US railways. In 1973, Congress would enact the so-called 3R to keep regional railway transport alive and save.
Many stations will be shut down, all of the lines that are not seen as efficient for the freight transportation will be canceled, and work will be started to reorganize the freight transportation. As a result, rail freight transport was a profitable transportation.
After 1980, especially in the field of freight transportation, the transition of the US railways from the collapse to the recovery period would be years. The biggest share in the recovery process, in addition to the Staggers Railway Law in 1980, the Northeast Railway Service Law was to be issued in 1981. All of these will be called 4R law, and great steps will be taken in order for the railway to compete with the trucking.
The situation in Europe is a bit more complicated. The healing of war wounds, the redevelopment of the industry, and of course, the effects of the new approach of transportation cause multiple changes in the railways. The impact of highways is beginning to feel its weight in Europe since the late 1930s. Private companies operate railways in Europe. From the late 1930s to the beginning of World War II, it was the time when fast passenger transport came to the fore in order to attract attention to the railways. Up to 2 km / h speeds, steam trains run, at 200 km / h, the world records are broken for the steamers. It is expected that the railways serving the army during the war period will support the development of the industry after the war. However, with the effect of the new transportation concept of the period, the railway companies' jobs are not good, therefore, there will be high demands for fees in the transportation to be made in the name of industrial development. The new transportation concept of the period, in short, increased the impact of the road, and it provided new business and industrial opportunities to countries such as England, Germany, France and Italy, which were already the road industry before the war, with the support of Marshall aid. However, there was also a need for railways in development, especially in heavy industry. This need would be transformed into state policy and the railroads, which companies did not invest and develop and demand high transportation charges, would be nationalized.
With the law enacted in the mid-1930s, Germany would prohibit long-distance bus transportation, and only provide limited service on some routes, to prevent rising road transport. This law was intended to protect railways against road spill over passenger basis. The law would remain valid until 2012. In fact, one of the main reasons for the enactment of this law was that the highway was dependent on imported energy, oil. However, railways could work with electrical energy, which is purely domestic energy.
In the period between 1950 and 1980, the heavily used lines on the railways, especially in Germany and France, would be electrified, and trains would be made more comfortable and faster with the idea that “the increase in interest in railways will pass through passenger transport”. In fact, in 1955, when France broke the world record with a test train at 331km / h, it would draw all the attention. Then, in 1964, Japan would start commercial flights with its first high-speed train, Shinkansen (Bullet Train), at a speed of 200km / h.
The country where the railway was born, England, after the nationalization of the railroads, 1965 will start the big modernization business from the year. However, in the modernization work, the UK was among the first to recognize the blessings of oil, and by the influence of large oil companies, it would leave the use of electricity in the railways and then concentrate on more modern diesel systems.
Apart from France, Germany, he was working on railways in Switzerland, Austria and Italy, which had a difficult geography. Except for all these countries, it was not possible to say the same things for other countries of Europe. Both the economic conditions and the change in the transportation concept of that period would be affected by the wind, and the railroads would regress significantly.
So, did the efforts of the countries, which are working on the railways in the period between 1950-2000, prevent the widespread road transport?
- They adopted the idea of “increased interest in railways passes through passenger transportation” and prioritized passenger transportation by increasing the speed and comfort of trains. This, in contrast to the USA, has significantly increased the shift of high-freight rail freight transport to the highway. So much so that, despite all the studies I will talk about in the following sections of the article in 2010, it will be seen that the rate of railway freight transport across the EU is around 7-8% compared to other modes.
- As a result of the passenger policies pursued between 1980 and 2000, high-speed train systems made their weight felt, and the contribution of high-speed trains in the newly constructed railway lines was very high. In the years after 2000, this situation would become more important and difficult to fix, and there would be difficulties in the construction and arrangement of freight-passenger mixed lines (conventional lines).
- Each country would design the railway systems according to the technologies and possibilities determined by itself, and there would be difficulties and serious delays in international transportation and cross-country transitions. This would ensure that transportation, especially freight transport, slips onto the highway.
- The construction of multi-lane highways would become widespread, and railway lines would not reach this speed. Railways will be referred more as high-speed trains as “vision” projects, while developments in high-speed trains will not be experienced in conventional lines.
- In the period between 1980 and 2000, high-speed train management, which tried to be equipped with systems that can compete with developing airlines and minimize system difference problems, needed state subsidies in order not to reflect the high cost of operating costs to ticket prices. However, if the freight transport, which had a high return, had not slipped on the highway, with the return of freight transport, it could require lower subsidies. This environment would lay the groundwork for the idea that “railways are hurting, burdening states” in the coming years.
- England: The country where railways were born, even in England, between the periods of 1950-1979, 1600km. Between the years of 1979-1997, while 3200km of multi-lane highways were built, many lines were closed on the railways under the pretext of "inefficient and old". This is clearly seen on the map below.
- France: In the period between 1914 and 1930, there were more than 1435 km of railway lines within the country, including decouvile systems (today they are smaller than the 600mm rail span, which is considered the standard, with a rail span of 1000-60000mm, for example, smaller rail vehicles). . Since 1930, it now has around 40000km of railway lines, including shut-off systems.
- Germany: Today, the country, which has a railway network of approximately 80000 km, pursued a more stable railway policy on railroads in the period between 1934 and 2012, with the effect of the ban on intercity bus operation. However, despite this, it has decreased especially in freight transportation. In the 1990s, it would also have turbulent periods in the number of passengers.
The road-based transportation approach, which started in the 1930s and increased after 1950, has also shown its effect in Europe. With the idea of “National Energy”, the oil crisis that erupted countries investing in electric railways in 1979 would highlight how right their thoughts were. But even these developments would not prevent the highway and then the airline from developing at a dizzying pace.
After 1950 the World Travel Sense of Changing either in Turkey?
1947 since the Marshall Aid, western support of the political understanding of foreign policy and the first who headed west, especially the US, "Little America" entered the dreams of becoming Turkey's, could not be expected, of course, or else follow a path affected by the change in the aforementioned transportation. It was easier to make one-way and double-lane highway than the railroad. Railway steep ramps would not like sharp bends. However, in our country, which is generally mountainous, there should be steep ramps and sharp turns. This was another factor that facilitated the construction of the highway.
An important point was that the highway would open the door to new industrial formations. The repair and maintenance of road vehicles was preparing a sub-industry environment, which consisted of gas stations to be quickly opened all over the country and in the future, from rubber to door seals and seat coverings.
With the liberal policy adopted, the Foreign Capital Incentive Law would be enacted in 1954. Of course, with the world view of the period, the ease of investment, grants and loans for transportation in the road and the fact that foreign capital enterprises were road-weighted was quite normal at that time.
Marshall help is said to have undermined the railways. It is necessary to look at the allowances for the 1948-1952 era, but not be mistaken.
5 000 000 0 0 XNUMX Highways XNUMX
10 000 000 4 474 000 9 414 810 XNUMX
3 500 000 19 127 830 19 539 000 XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX
0 18 172 430 10 713 Railways 160 XNUMX
18 500 000 41 774 260 39 666 970 XNUMX
Looking at the list of appropriations allocated above, it is seen that road investments are less than rail and sea. This may sound interesting. However, there is one thing to be very careful about. In these allocations, more than 90% of the amount spent on highways was spent on new road construction. On the railways, the purchase of new engines, and to be put into operation in 1955, Sirkeci-Halkalı the electrification work of the railway and the purchase of electric locomotives.
In 1947, the date of acceptance of the Marshall Aid, the US Federal Roads Assistant Director HG Hilts chaired a panel of experts, he came to Turkey have been found in various studies, have prepared reports that need to be done at the end of this investigation. The period managers, with the breezes of the changing transportation concept in the world, started the mobilization of making asphalt paved, single or double lane roads, considering the interests of the country. In the transportation policies after 1950, the report prepared by Hilts in 1947 was taken as basis.
The total length of the highway, which was 1950 km in 47080, increased to 1960km by 61542, and an average of 1950km of new railways per year were built between 1980 and 30.
According to the 1969 SPO report, the amount of the total allowances made up to that year is 237 000 000 $, the portion of these allowances transferred to the transportation sector is 30 766 000 $, only 13 156 000 is spent on highways.
In addition, with the establishment and spread of the motor vehicle industry in the 1970s, the highway industry has been created, which has led to an increased interest in roads, as in the rest of the world.
Between the years of 1950-2000 in Turkey Railway Something has ever done?
- Sirkeci-Halkalı line electrification. Taking the new electric locomotive for this line.
- Sirkeci-Halkalı DRS, which is the modern signaling system of the period.
- Haydarpaşa-Gebze line electrification.
- Besides, Sirkeci-Halkalı, also, new electric train sets (EMU arrays) for Haydarpaşa-Gebze.
- The acquisition of new mototectors (DMU sets) for intercity and regional fast passenger transportation.
- Obtaining diesel locomotives for intercity express passenger trains and freight trains.
- In the Eskişehir Cer Atelier, which is today known as TÜLOMSAŞ, which is known with the revolution car, which was filmed today, first produced small steam locomotives called Mehmetçik and Efe, and then steam locomotives which are completely domestic production, called Bozkurt and Karakurt.
- Adapazari Wagon Repair Workshop, starting with the name in 1951, in 1961 the railway factories in Adapazari, 1975 in Adapazari Wagon Industrial Enterprises in 1986, in Turkey Wagon Industry Inc. was founded turned into TÜVASAŞ. In 1971, 77 wagons were exported to Pakistan and Bangladesh.
- The railway between Istanbul and Ankara has been transformed into electricity.
- Due to the parts and other problems experienced in imported diesel locomotives, the production of licensed diesel locomotives began in 1970 in TÜLOMSAŞ in parallel with the urgent diesel locomotive need. Some of these locomotives are modernized and used today.
- In 1990, a domestic production reamer named Sakarya was produced in TÜVASAŞ. (11 units)
Maybe I may have skipped from the above jobs. However, it would be a little unfair to say that "nails have not been nailed to railways since 1950". Of course, besides all these works, the main thing is not to attach enough importance to the construction of new railway lines. In the 1970s, the new “Speed Railway” project between Istanbul and Ankara was initiated after being affected by the high-speed train wind blowing from Europe and Japan, investments were made within the scope of this project, but it was left to its fate after more than 30 years. We also know this project as the “Endless Ayaş Tunnel”.
After the 1990, the view of economic understanding and railways in the world is changing:
The main events of the 1990s are the disintegration of the USSR, the demolition of the Berlin wall, the disintegration of Czechoslovakia and the reshaping of balkans, the US, which is essentially the oil war, entering Iraq, the formation and development of the Chinese factor in production, the formation of the European Union today. With the effect of changing economic understanding, namely capitalism, the countries of big companies would reveal the understanding of countries rather than the companies of the countries. Under the name of "competition and company wars", controlling the energy corridors was one of the major goals of large companies. Of course, when it comes to competition, it was necessary for cheap goods and services to be cheap and cheap to be cheap raw materials, cheap energy, cheap labor and cheap transportation. In this field, China has made a great leap forward and has come to the forefront in “cheap production” and has started to produce for other brands worldwide, apart from its own brands. Central Asia and the Middle East are the energy bases of the world and their target is to be under the control of major companies in these regions. Cheap energy is here, cheap production is from China. So does this always continue like this? The European Union (EU) will take steps in this regard, from 2000 to today, many Eastern countries with cheap labor and partial raw materials such as the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Romania, and also on the routes of connection with Asia. He would include the European country in the union. Large firms in countries with high labor costs (compared to the minimum wage), such as France and Germany, would move some of their factories there. In addition, Asian companies wishing to acquire markets in Europe would also establish factories in these regions. Cheap labor and cheap raw material situations seemed to be resolved. For cheap energy, the process that started with the invasion of Iraq would continue with the "Arab Spring". Cheap transportation remained. When it comes to cheap transportation, "old friend" abandoned railroads came to mind.
- In electric railway systems, energy use was very low compared to the amount of transport. In general, electricity charges were more stable than petroleum derivatives.
- The amount of energy used by the amount of transport in railways with diesel operation was lower than the road.
- Too much load could be carried in one go. For example, a train could easily carry 25 trucks. At least 25 drivers for 25 trucks, their salaries, allowances, insurance premiums etc. increased the transportation cost. However, on the train, with the developing technology, with one or two machinists, great savings would be made from the payments made to the drivers.
These opportunities provided by the railway were an appetite, given the developing economic conditions of the period. With the laws enacted in the 1980s, the USA started to develop railway freight transport, especially with high returns, and made great progress in the 1990s and 2000s with additional laws and government subsidies to companies.
In Europe, the situation is very different. The financial advantages provided by rail freight transport, although there is a lot of appetite, there is a lot of work to be done on the railways to stimulate freight transport.
- With the road domination starting in the 1930s, railroads have been postponed, and even though state support has been provided in the field of transportation, it has lost great blood in freight transportation. According to the transportation concept settled since 1950; Based on road freight transportation, which can be done in fast and flexible times, the lack of flexible time intervals of railways, the need for a lot more loads at one time for an effective transportation, and the waiting for the accumulation of this load is an important factor in the loss of blood in rail freight when evaluated in terms of time factor.
- With the decline in interest in railway freight transport, some countries have turned railways into state policy, leading to heavy passenger transport. This has led to the priority for passenger transport in conventional railway systems, particularly in the case of mixed freight (passenger / passenger). More flexible time intervals for freight transport will be difficult due to the high number of passenger traffic.
- Almost every country has set its railway systems and standards according to its own needs, signaling systems, railway vehicles, infrastructure differences, and international transport have made it quite difficult.
Of course, the above are the main parts of the difficulties. Starting in the 1930s and after the Second World War, road and airway transportation and the new industrialization movement brought by this transportation are still much more difficult to continue their railroads. Railways that are nationalized in Europe, and railway companies in the USA, which provided state support with the laws passed, and somehow saved. Briefly, the railroads that came to a place in the 2s with the support of the state throughout the world, but which, with the understanding created, did not develop sufficiently because they always remained in the background, attracted attention from the 1990s, especially with the great advantage it provides in terms of ton / km unit transportation cost.
It was a mistake to postpone the railways. However, saying “I made a mistake” was not acceptable for big company executives or political leaders of the countries. I mentioned in the previous parts of the article, the changing economic understanding around the world would verify the states of big companies instead of the companies of the states. In this context, criminals were sought to tell the people of the country why the railways could not develop. Of course, the criminal was not expected to have a past transportation understanding and to establish companies that establish new and versatile industries with this transportation approach. The culprit was "state monopoly". The railroads, which are environmentally friendly in terms of their structure, will be further emphasized by this feature, which is the sensitive point of today, and the country's administrators of the period will increase their reputation by adopting new regulations about railways, and most importantly, a giant railway industry sector, including urban rail systems, will be created. If you remember, I mentioned in the previous parts of the article that focusing on highway and airline creates new and rapidly developing industrial areas. After 1990, the same event would also apply to railways. All kinds of equipment used in infrastructure, trains and stations would allow many main and sub-industry products to be formed.
Solutions to these troubles that come from the past and grow exponentially every year would be in the long term. But it had to start somewhere. In the long term, it would be highly versatile. Privatization attempts were to be started in 1990, considering the state administration or monopoly declared as “criminal”. In 1991, EU Directive 91/440 (EU Directive 91/440) was published. In the Directive, railways would be divided into two basic structures, infrastructure and business administration, and would mention the necessity of companies operating in these structures. In addition, the number and salaries of the state staff were high. "Personnel expenses" would decrease after privatization or incorporation. Railroads, especially EU member states, were changing the shell with simple expression.
Of course, money was needed for all these works. The experience of that part of the business was already made in the 1950s in the form of long-term and low-interest loans and grants to support the highway and then the airline. The same will apply to railways today, grants and long-term loans with low interest rates will be provided to encourage rail and increase investments. Of course, what kind of conditions were necessary for providing these loans.
In short, most of the factors in changing the way the world-wide railroads, especially the EU, were described above.
These developments exist in the world after 1990. So either in Turkey?
As in the past, it was not possible for Turkey not to be affected by the developments in the world. In fact, it would be unthinkable to remain indifferent to these developments in the world in today's era, where there are situations such as the EU customs union and the membership process, its inclusion in international agreements in transportation corridors, foreign trade areas and foreign capital flows. While the Hilts report in 1947 stated that highways should be given importance, the Booz & Hamilton or more commonly known Canac report, which was put into practice in 1994, imposed a list of things to do on the railways under the name of “efficiency”. There were many regulations in this list, such as removing or restricting long-distance rail passenger transport as much as possible, closing underutilized stations, closing underutilized railway lines, "staffing" and reducing the number of personnel. These were implemented one by one, and a “shell change” was beginning in the railways in Turkey. The "economic recovery" process and new management after the great financial crisis of 2001. All over the world, railway investments accelerate kazanAs stated above, grants and cheap loans were provided for these investments. Railway investments brought the railway sector with it, for thousands of equipment and equipment used, rather than a transportation investment alone. If you remember, at the beginning of this article, when I was talking about the European railways after 1950, I mentioned the idea that "the increase in the interest in railways is through passenger transportation". Within the framework of this thought, investments were made for fast and high speed trains. Turkey would also pass through these roads. These were "vision" projects for politicians and, like their colleagues abroad, the advertisement of "the previous ones didn't do it, we did it" would be frequently mentioned in the following years. While the developments in the world railways were advancing at a dizzying pace, something urgent had to be done in Turkey. The first step, made without limited opportunities and sufficient technical infrastructure, would unfortunately cost the lives of 40 people. We were going to engrave this in our memories as the Pamukova accident that took place in 2004. Immediately afterwards, the Ankara-Istanbul YHT (High Speed Train) project would be activated with appropriate loans and grants, the Ankara-Eskişehir line would be opened, and the Konya-Ankara line would be built and put into operation before reaching Istanbul. YHT projects would be activated for many provinces. In this way, as stated in the Canac report, long-distance passenger transportation from conventional lines would be reduced, and many express trains would be canceled in this context. Passengers would mainly be directed to high-speed trains. In this way, conventional lines, whose capacities were already limited, would be left mainly to high-yield freight transportation. Passenger transport on conventional lines would be shifted to medium and short-haul regional trains. It is also for efficient use of lines. Of course, in the meantime, maintenance and renewal works on conventional lines would also be carried out. Somehow, it was easy to get appropriate credit and support for railway investments around the world. What remained was a radical change. In Europe, the "state monopoly" was the culprit for the lack of development of the railways. This should have been the case in Turkey as well. Under the name of "deregulation", the law that would allow the private sector to operate on the trains would be accepted by "freeing" the railways from the state monopoly. Infrastructure and operation would be separate companies, just as in EU directives. In short, the railway wind blowing around the world would also affect Turkey, and thanks to this wind, the interest and investments in urban rail systems would increase. After all, eligible loans and grants were also available for urban rail systems.
There is a saying that experts in history usually say. This word; It is a sentence such as "When examining the history of a country or a region, we should also consider the world view of that period". Long story short, Turkey, yesterday, has identified the transport policy also keeping up with the current world opinion today. Future projects will be implemented as in the world. The politics of our current politicians with the basic logic of “nothing has been done in the past, we have done everything” causes unnecessary discussions and quarrels. In addition, those who have tried to do something with limited possibilities in the past have been unfair. This unnecessary discussions and put aside the rhetoric lay the groundwork for this discussion, the strategic point of vital importance in the future for Turkey to build the railway network capable of fast and secure freight and passenger transport, I believe that should be studied to have power.
Ömer Tolga Sümerli